Friday, April 22, 2016

Postblogging Technology, March 1946, I: Tuxedo Park is Melting in the Rain

Mr. R_. C_.,
Vancouver, Canada

My Dear Father:

I hope that this letter finds your convalescence well advanced. The nerve of the Government, keeping a man of  your age under such strain, so long, and for such absurd reasons! Thanks to your letter, at least I understand the concern better now. The more that I hear about the effects of one of those pedestrian, old-fashioned "regular" atom bombs at Nagasaki, the less I want to know about tritium-boosted "super" bombs. 

But you are released, and all it cost you was being delivered through your front door in a wheelchair. I wonder what your neighbours thought when the Army ambulance pulled up the back lane?

For us here in Santa Clara, it is a moment to be amazed at just how quickly the academic year comes to an end. "Miss V.C." is a sight unseen, up in her rooms at the junior college in Palo Alto, preparing for final examinations. (Or so she says.) Equally little is heard from your son, and that in spite of his work for the Navy, which is apparently extending over a machine shop in New Haven, where Ensign Wong is now seconded from his Alaskan vacation paradise. One delightful by-product of this is that your youngest has seen rather more of "Lieutenant A.," who is  hard on the heels of a supposed Communist spy ring operating at Yale. 

As I mention below, Uncle George has finally resumed an interest in business, and will be your neck of the woods --almost-- over the next week, on a fact-finding tour of the smelter at Trail. It is not the kind of business which engages his interests, but news of the world lead shortage cannot be ignored. He is also gently probing the possible resumption of the "all Red route." The harbour transfers are getting hair-raising, and I would much prefer to see our new clients dropped politely off on some rain-soaked British Columbia dock, if that is possible. If the civil war really does resume next year, we will have more business than we would care to contemplate were it not for the need to keep the Benevolent Associations happy. It is so frustrating. Parents and kin are one thing. It is the old men shopping for spouses for their grandsons who frustrate me. Just get an American girl for your boy, I want to yell at them, but it will do me no good. The New World has a corrupting effect on filial piety, it is firmly and sincerely explained. 

A charts-topping hit of 1959 invites us to reconsider the question of bringing down Western Civilisation. If you want to skip ahead, there is a linked video with a less offensive version, if you have autoplay activated. Otherwise, it's on to Gunther's version. 

So, if we can find a port in British Columbia through which we can move people, it would be good to have the procedures for "midnight baptisms" at the river crossing nailed down.  The Canadians built up all sorts of bases on the coast during the late war. Perhaps there is someone at one or the other of them who would not mind a new stream of business? Then it will only be a matter of arranging road transport through the province to Trail. And there's the price of lead, zinc and copper to consider.

A final word: quite a large expenditure will appear in the accounts, appended. I make no apologies. Housing, never mind actual houses, are dear around San Francisco these days, never mind Berkeley,> It is expensive, I admit, but the loyalties of the Wongs and of Fat Chow, are not, to my mind, a negotiable asset. If there is blame, she said, quick to deflect it, blame our brave warriors, who have done noble work in their recent visits. To put it mildly, Queenie and "Miss v. Q" are not going to be in a position to share an apartment, especially with the littlest Wong walking already.  

Subtle subtext about the role of  a society's demographic profile in maintaining consumer demand is subtle.


The Economist, 2 March 1946
“The Economic Debate” The paper thinks that the estimates are “not unsatisfactory.” 

However, the decision to return to the “pre-war” “mid-1939” (not actually the same thing!) expenditure level of £1700 million might be a bad thing, in that the “munitions industry” is being reduced to “less than its normal size.” Also, technology, mechanisation, demobilisation, conscription. So many things that could go wrong. Also, we can go from that to the shortage of labour in the United Kingdom in one leading article. Because of demobilisation? Or because the munitions industry is being reduced too far, but has too much labour? I’ve actually read the article (appearences notwithstanding), and I don’t understand! 

“Foreign Audit” The English audit swarthy foreigners? No doubt they’ll all prove to be on the take. No, actually, it is an audit of Britain’s foreign relations. With everybody. We have too many troops in too many places. We must extricate ourselves from “aggressive self defence” in those places where are troops are. We must find money. We have not enough dollars. If we only had 20 million tons of coal to export, we would “be mistress of most of Europe.” 
(Probably not what the paper meant to say.)

So, in short, Britain must “liquidate” its most “onerous” foreign commitments. It should get out of Trieste; everyone should get out of Austria, and leave it to the Austrians and the kangaroos. They should get out of Indonesia in “the next few months.” It is hoped that the impeding Cabinet Mission will lead to “the end of all the internal responsibilities of Great Britain in the sub-continent.” “Responsibilities.” That’s a good one. 

On the other hand, Malaya needs more Britain. Because of internal –stuff. Lebanon and Syria should be evacuated in the next few weeks, and Egypt in only slightly more time. Bases in Iraq, Palestine, Sudan and possibly Cyprus are enough.

“Doctors and the Health Service” Doctors still want to be able to treat rich people for fees, and to buy and sell practices, and they still won’t be allowed to do either, but doctors’ salaries are still open for negotiation.

“The Fourth Five Year Plan” Did you see the fourth The Thin Man Goes Home? Probably not, as I recall there was a war on last year. My point is, I hope that the fourth sequel to the Five Year Plan is better than the fourth sequel to The Thin Man! It is interesting to hear that there has been a “spontaneous rush” to the liberated western regions that the central government is powerless to control. Not what you expect of the all-embracing power of the Supreme Soviet!

Notes of the Week

“Housing Progress Report” 112,000 families have been rehoused in England and Wales since last March. Only 350 are living in permanent homes built by local authorities, another 1100 in houses completed by private builders. Labour erecting temporary houses has risen from 4000 to 34000, and overall building labour has risen to 425,000 from 347,000 last June, but in June of 1939, total labour in building nwas 1.4 million, while the total across industry and civil engineering today is only 690,000. So: 1,909 new permanent homes; 12,025 temporary ones; 24,491 permanent homes under construction, 13,600 temporary ones; 9,945 homes converted or adapted; 70,221 repaired and brought back to use; 2,985 temporary huts occupied, to give a total of 99,123 families rehoused in England and Wales, 2200 or so in Scotland. Private builders look to be able to do a much larger share of the work than the government is willing to concede, the paper concludes.

“No Agricultural Policy” There is to be talking about talking about it, though. The Government is against further agricultural specialisation, while the paper is on fire for a recent paper by Viscount Astor and Mr. Seebohm Rowntree calling for more dairy.

“Indian Violence” The Indian Royal Navy riots are over after ten days. 270 people have been killed, 1500 injured, and there was much looting. Credit for suppressing the riots must go not only to British troops, but Indian leaders, above all Mr. Gandhi.

The Riots in Cairo” The paper takes a long time getting around to calling for British troops to evacuate Cairo and Alexandria.

“Without de Gaulle” The French crisis, etc., etc. The paper is pleased to see the Army drawn down, though.

The DefenceWhite Paper” Has been released.

“Coal –More Remedies” Mr. Shinwell is open to the idea of extra rations for coal miners. A letter to the Times points out that Dutch miners get 4400 calories a day, and look at their output! British miners are down to 2700, and their output has fallen with their food intake. Recent signs of hope (more hires than departures, a rise in output), are fragile and may be reversed by the recent cold weather, so more food it is! If the public can be persuaded.

In case you can't wait till next week to see what those lucky duckies are getting. Obligatory Monty Python ref.

“Resorts and Ports” Seaside resorts have clamoured successfully for relief they do not really need, while the ports of south Wales are in awful and unheeded decline.

“Franco Tightens His Grip” The recent call to Spaniards to get rid of Franco for themselves has had the most unexpected result, including the execution in Madrid of Cristino Garcia and nine companions.

Pictures of Garcia aren't hard to find. The other nine, not so much.

“Japanese Politics” Japan is to have parliamentary elections on 31 March. Since many on the right are barred from running, the Social Democrats and Liberals are expected to do well.

“One Party System in the Russian Zone?” Question mark?

“University Progress” There is to be more money for the universities and colleges –£3.8 million more than the 5.6 million of last year—and the paper hopes for a National College of Technology at the apex of the new national system of technical colleges and industry.

“London’s Hospitals” Should have a comprehensive plan.

“The Civil Estimates” Quite a lot of money will be spent, but since there is no comparing it with 1939, the paper doesn’t.

“Wages and Trade Unions” The paper sees the Government as picking a fight with the unions over settling wages.

“The Palestinian Commission Goes East” At the end of their tour of the DP camps, Mr. Bartly C.Crum said that “[i]f we do not clean up the DP camps, we shall have either mass suicides of Jews, or else they will try to fight their way to Palestine.” Since there is need for an immediate solution, the only thing is for the Commission to go east and talk about talking.

Counsel, the Aga Khan, and Rita Hayworth. Another day at the office.

“Claims on Italy” There is some thought that the former Italian colonial territories might go to various Allies, many of whom want Cyrenaica, because chasing Senussi through the desert is fun.

In shorter notes, the number of men and women released from the armed forces in January was 444,860;  a 62,602 increase over December. Fruits and vegetables are about to be imported from France and Holland in “substantial quantities.” There will be a ban on imports at the peak of the British season, but, until then, in they come.

American Survey

“Topside on the Ship of State, II” From A Correspondent in Washington

The State Department is like an ostrich, in that the various formerly independent “ABC” agencies that it is swallowing up one by one are making bulges in its neck on the way down like an ostrich eating oranges; and also because it sticks its head in the sand! Clever. And a good way of filling a full page, since many of the ABCs have quite long names.

“Liquidity in American Business” From Our New York Correspondent

American business and American individuals have accumulated a great deal of liquidity in the form of bank deposits and Government securities. “Between December 1941 and March 1945, The net working capita of non-finance corporations has increased by 46% from $32.1 billion to $46.9 billion.” 11.1 billion offsets increased liabilities, there has been a $14.8 billion increase in working capital. Much of this has been due to  high corporate earnings, although direct government investment in war plant has also been a factor.

From Mobile, Alabama, some ships they built.

1947 will see an all-time high in dividend payments and continuing high earnings, although generous wage settlements (without increasing productivity or higher price ceilings) may also be a factor. A Department of Commerce survey of railways, utilities and manufacturers shows that they intend to invest $11 billion next year, with 75% of the outlays from internal sources, although the amounts are so large that there will still be heavy draw on bank loans. Smaller manufacturers (and new ones, I suppose, like the ones we are interested in) will draw more on the banks. Larger manufacturers especially will issue securities, and 1947 will see the highest issue ever. However, lower interest rates might cut off the loans because they are not then worthwhile due to their risk and expense? 

“Another reawakening echo which should be reported in this connection is the prewar oversavings argument that a long term trend exists towards a progressively greater retention of business earnings, which imperils business stability. This is a moot question, but studies to date apparently provide no conclusive evidence of such a trend.” Whatever that means.

American Notes

“Spy Scare” “If British tables groan under the weight of powdered eggs next winter’ we can credit your cipher clerk. The paper says that it is not worth the cost of bad relations with Russia and the bottling up of nuclear research, however. Others think that Canada has been too-secret, and point to the President’s appointment of an all-civilian board to evaluate the results of the Operation Crossroads trials as proof that, if America can avoid a red scare like 1919, all will be well.

Source; Christy Schroeder's 2007 UGeorgia senior thesis. 

“Homes for Veterans” Wilson Wyatt has launched a plan for 2.7 million moderately-priced homes for veterans within 22 months: 500,000 makeshift and 1.2 million permanent in 1946; 1.5 million, all conventional, in 1947. Veterans will have preference, and the price will be fixed at $6000 or $50 rent/month. This will require virtually prohibiting all other kinds of building, Mr. Wyatt thinks, and finding 1.5 million workers. Congress, convinced by its mail bags, is actually willing to act. There only remains the paper’s beloved talking about talking (regulations, inspections, price ceilings in the supplying industries, trade restrictions, etc.)

“Stabilising the Bulge” In the cost of living, that is. This is the daily drumbeat of news: strikes, wage demands, complaints over price ceilings, the black market. In an attempt to stand out from the headlines, the paper fixates on the effort in Washington to persuade Congress to extend the WPA’s authority to set prices past 30 June.

Shorter Notes

Harold Ickes will be succeeded by J. A. Krug. The Full Employment bill, now toothless, has been signed into law. The House has voted to limit the powers of Mr. Petrillo, “under extreme provocation.” Specifically, his attempt to prevent the broadcast of foreign music, “presumably because its performers had not paid their dues.”

The World Overseas
“The German Zones” The transfer of Germans from the eastern provinces has been temporarily halted, but if it continues, the population of the west will rise from the present 64 to 72 million, and the population density from 364 to 518, compared with 501 for the United Kingdom. The Americans want to create some kind of German federal government. The other occupying powers have other ideas. It is all makeshift, and desperately demands talking about talking.

“India at the Polls” Congress and the Moslim League win big, the Hindu Mahasabha party has been eliminated. The limited franchise means that only the best-educated and most prosperous have voted, but their preference for Jinnah’s League (on the Moslem side) is telling. Now come the state elections.
I think we can all join The Economist in regretting the defeat of the anti-indepedence Hindu nationalist party. I sure hope they don't do something rash!

Letters to the Editor

Charles Avery, of San Francisco, writes to defend the Import-Export Bank of the United States against the charge that it “discriminates” in favour of American business. Roger Gibb, of Crabtrees, Long Bottom, Beaconsfield, Bucks, writes that large, American-style rail wagons are so a good idea, neener-neener. T. Balogh, of 19 Bradmore Road, Oxford, violently attacks Professor Jewkes’ violent attack on official secrecy (in the field of negotiating international trade deals).

The Business World

“The Budget Takes Shape” Britain does not yet have a budget, but there is enough information that the paper can splatter it over three pages. I am not sure what to say about this. The taxation information will be of the greatest interest to the Earl, but he surely doesn’t need this letter!

“The Lead Shortage” Lead was not short during the war, but now it is. The paper especially notes the wrecking of the Bawdwin Mines in Upper Burma in the late war. Great-Uncle would be pleased that what his dacoits could not do, the Japanese have. Speaking of family history, Great-Uncle's sensible decision to invest in Canadian mines while bringing Western Civilisation down in Burma means that, between industrial demand, the market for TEL, and the worldwide shortage of mining labour, we probablly need to check in with the smelter in Trail. They may not be Uncle George’s beloved electrical engineers, but it is nice to have pull where the river flows across the border. Uncle has agreed to go up and take a look around. We are all very glad that he is taking an interest in business again.
In the postwar, COMINCO began to offer a "30 and out" pension contract, and starting in the late 1970s, you began to see 50-year-old retirees around town. "Freedom 55," eat your heart out! It's all over now, of course.

Business Notes

“The Nationalised Bank” It has only been a fortnight since the Bank of England was nationalised, and already the most exciting things have happened. For example, the number of directors has been reduced from 24 to 16, and they include various persons of the highest virtue. Also in Parliament-nationalisation talk, the paper contemplates the Investment Bill. To underline the value of National capitalism, the paper can point to the wild sell-off on Wall Street, while in defence of free market capitalism one can point to Mr. Dalton’s much to blunt and frank comments on the Japanese bonds issue, and to the opposition to railway nationalisation.

The LNER has increased its dividend, there is to be no fresh credit for France, various French financial agreements come under scrutiny, the use of sterling in the wider Area may be freed somewhat as the American agreement comes into effect,  The Bankers Clearing House is returning to the City from the Country, fur auctions are to be resumed, the industrial diamond trade is doing well, and average workers’ earnings are up 80% since October 1938, the highest since the beginning of the war with the exception of July 1944, which must have seen a surging flood of overtime, looking back. Retail trade profits and dividends are up, and Warner Brothers has bought Associated British Picture Corporation to improve access for its films. (Including, perhaps, even British films in America!)

Flight, 7 March 1946


“False Alarms” Air Vice-Marshal Bennett disappeared last week, taking off in his plane without telling anyone where he was going. (Just like Charles Lindbergh used to do, and look how innocent that turned out to be!) The press got excited about it, but it really shouldn’t have, because it was all innocent, and the Air Vice-Marshal is a swell fellow.

“Bilateral Agreement” Great Britain and France have concluded an up-to-date civil aviation agreement. I am going to go look “concluded” up in a dictionary, because this passage can’t possibly mean it seems to mean. No more talking about talking?

“The Atlantic Gap” It has been announced that the BOAC transatlantic flying boat service from Poole to Bermuda via West Africa and South America will make its last run on the 7th. One flight in either direction a week in winter, and four in summer has been a “stop gap,” and the Boeing flying boats are worn out. BOAC’s new Constellations will take over the service this summer. This will make for a four month gap in British civil transatlantic air services, and the paper is not pleased.

“’Indicator’ Discusses Topics of the Day: Let Us be Honest: The Continued need for Uncompromising Realism: Too Much Publicity-consciousness: Prototype Development No Easy Matter: Hard Work Ahead” “Indicator” thinks that the English shouldn’t exaggerate about their aircraft, or on the other hand just assume that American planes are better. He is upset about the way that the Lockheed P-80’s coast-to-coast flight was covered. He thinks that there is too much inaccurate publicity about planes. He thinks Americans are awful. He thinks that the English should try not to be awful. He thinks that all the new airliners promised in America are actually a long way off.

“Departure of the U.S. Army 8th Air Force: Last Lend/Lease Airfield Handed back to the RAF” The 8th Air Force goes away some more. The paper takes a moment to remind us that the American daylight bombing effort started small, back in 1942. This sort of thing just reads as defensive.

Here and There

The RCAF Mail Squadron has been disbanded, and its work taken over by Trans-Canada Airlines. The RAF Transport Command Dakotas flying the “Bandoeng Express” broke their own cargo tonnage record for the third time in six days this week by flying 188 tons of supplies from Batavia to the hill statin of Bandoeng and flying out 72 women and children. Isn’t the “figure of merit” (to talk aviation talk) 200,000 people? S. S. Manela, the [a?] RAF’s flying boat tender in the Indian Ocean, is returning to England with 500 demobilised RAF personnel and their families aboard. Mascot Airport, New South Wales, is too congested.

“Research by Robot” The paper notices that the atomic bomb tests in the South Seas will be monitored by ten remote-controlled B-17s. If the teams can just get them flying reliably. “They will take off, transmit data, and land (assuming that they survive) by radio control.” It’s the landing part that is tricky, I’m told. Uncle Henry is promoting the old Stearman-Hammond pusher as the Kaiser-Hammond.  Mr. Upson is very critical of the twin-boom cabin pusher on the grounds that the boom structure is inefficient on this scale. Why am I not surprised?

Speaking of Mr. Upson, have some hilarity.

“Tiresome” An officer in the Combined Intelligence Objectives Sub-committee involved in swanning about Europe looking at intelligent stuff is very tired of the time-wasting, lack of organisation, and un-necessary labour, and wishes he knew what, exactly, they were looking for. Eire imported £15,000 in aircraft and parts last year; the Swordfish shadow factory in Serburn-in-Elmet has been sold to W. and T. Avery, the scales makers. Fifty RCAF airfields have been declared surplus and are to be turned over to Canadian municipalities. The First Australian National Airlines Skymaster flew from San Francisco-Melbourne in 30h 51 minutes flying time, and will be used on the Melbourne-Perth service. By the end of June, 711,000 of the 1,110,000 men and women in the RAF last VE-Day will have been demobilised.

“Freighter and Wayfarer: Bristol Type 170 Described: ‘Bread and Butter’ Cargo or Passenger Aircraft: Simple Construction and Maintenance’ Just in case the reader had not guessed from the way that almost every one of the many ads in this number are about the bubble-nosed Bristol Freighter, here is its technical write-up. It’s boring, and will be cheap to operate. Everyone should buy one. If they don’t need to fly cargo from Batavia to Bandoeng, at least they can live in it. The “Wayfarer” is the proposed passenger-carrying variant, with room for 32 seats.

The paper celebrates the RNZAF’s second V.C., won by Squadron Leader Leonard Henry Trent, flying a Ventura, in a 1943 raid on a power station near Amsterdam. Paul S. Johnston, formerly of Aviation, has been appointed director of the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences. Perhaps hewill compose a box score of American science!

Canadian FoxMoth: Post-War Production of Economical Light Transport: Landplane, Seaplane and Skiplane Versions” Very old plane will still be produced if people want it.

Northrop has its own Technical Training Institute near Los Angeles, and the RAE is to formalise its own training as the RAE Technical College. The paper gets into the education business with reprints of its recent four-page “Explanation of Gas Turbine Principles,” available by mail for 6d postage free from the paper’s offices.

Anthony Fletcher, M.A. (Oxon), “Stress Without Strain: A Simplified Method of Airscrew Blade Stressing, with Special Reference to Wood or ‘Improved Wood’ Blades” Engineers can’t do math, and it is quite unreasonable to expect that they should. Therefore, this simplified method of designing an airscrew blade where the designer doesn’t have to bother his head with all the hard stuff, because Mr. Fletcher has done it for them, and reduced it all to a set of graphical aids and tables. Well, then. No more worries from me about my husband flying on business!

“Berlin Air Safety Centre: International Flying Control Section for German Capital” The centre is a four-power operations room in the heart of Berlin, which controls all flights by the four powers into and out of Berlin. When any plane of the four powers reaches a point 275 miles from Berlin, it radios into the centre and receives full weather reports and landing instructions. The Centre uses American procedures, and the British section is under Squadron Leader R. Aldous. In other safety news, the paper has learned that Sun Insurance has extended its world travel insurance to air travel without additional premiums, since flying is just as safe as any other form of transportation.

Civil Aviation

“Anglo-French Agreement: Standing Committee to Co-ordinate Mutual Air Services: Route Capacities to be Equally Shared” I think the title says it all.

The Danes, Swedes and Norwegians are to form a joint Scandinavian Air Lines company. Skymasters will be used in a three-a-week service between the three Scandinavian capitals and New York, beginning next May.

Several new of the great and good have been appointed to PICAO [Charles Clark, Miss J. M. Woolaston, “formerly J. B. Priestley’s secretary.”) Various authorities are looking into air transporting Florida produce again. Short delivers some Sunderlands to Argentina more. With all eyes on cabin heating, Lockheed is looking at cabin cooling, using both the vapour-compression and dry ice methods. It eventually decided on an “air-expansion turbine refrigeration-unit weighing 115lbs.” It will keep the Constellation’s cabin temperature at 75 degrees when the ground temperature is as high as 100, and is in the now-CAB approved Constellation, now rated for an all-up takeoff weight of 90,000lb.

De Havilland has just sent Mr. Frederick C. Plumb to Canada to work for its Canadian division. The Gare des Invalides has been taken over by Air France as Paris’s new air terminus. Long range flights will still use Orly, and local ones, Le Bourget, and the Gare des Invalides station is conveniently located between them, so that passengers can be conveniently transported there for additional interminable waiting. Blackpool’s airport, Squire’s Gate, has been settled. Miles Aircraft has gone in with Aer Rianta to form an aircraft maintenance concern at Dublin airport. Scottish peers want a Scottish utility corporation to operate Prestwick and conduct air services, but are not going to get one, because of efficiency.

“Radio and Civil Aviation: Aids to Schedule-keeping: Safe Reduction of Factors of safety: Additional Radio Preferable to Additional Fuel: Summary of a Lecture to the International Conference on Radio and Radar, by Sir Robert Watson-Watt” The lecture notes that the heavy night bombers of 1944 carried 1300lbs of radio equipoment, of which the principle items were a GP set T.11554/R.1155 M/F, H/F, W/T and D/F, a VHF TR 1143 and HF TR 1196 for local control and inter-aircraft R/T communications; an IFF Mk III (T. 3090); an ARA 5083 Gee for navigation, and an SBA R 1124/R 1125A for track guide and approach. (I hope the Air Ministry comes around to leaving out all the periods in the abbreviations before it runs out of typewriter ribbons.). The current planned load of radios on British civil aircraft is in all cases less than this, with the Brabazon I to carry 1056, and the Ambassador 665. This growing array of black boxes may seem excessive, but a modern airliner “does not drink less than a gallon a minute,” and even at the world’s best organised and most efficient airport (probably La Guardia), landing delays are not less than 75 minutes. This requires an additional 75 to 300 gallons of fuel, which, if spared, could be used for payload. Thus, more radios, not less. Also, there are weather reports to be considered. This would require rationalising the world’s use of radio so that more frequencies are available for aircraft. He praised American work on pulse systems in his comments after the end of the talk, and, of some relevance for this letter, inasmuch as there have been some wild claims about Alfred Lee Loomis “inventing” it, Watson-Watt was less flattering to the recent American Loran.


Vivian Cox adds up the axial loadings given for the DH Goblin and comes up with 2500 lb instead of the 3000lbs given by the article. The editors explain. “All First Class Mail by Air” makes his point. John Howard points out that errors in C.G. calculations can lead to plane crashes. He is especially critical of spacious fuselages supported by only two engines, notably the Dakota. He speculates that overloading with demobilised men has led to some of the recent air crashes. He thinks clearer terminology might help.
CC BY-SA 3.0,

The Industry

Messier Equipment is very excited about its new forklift. Mr. Shackleton is back from America, where he toured a number of American and Canadian factories. (Because Canada is in America. La la la I can’t hear you!) Continental Motors is the latest company to confuse the “1946” on its calendar for “1936” and offer a new 9  cylinder medium-powered (direct drive!) radial engine for civil work.  Alex Henshaw has joined Miles Aircraft as handsome-test-pilot-in-charge-of-stock-pumping.

Alex Henshaw in 1941 with unidentified older male, left. After the Miles bankruptcy, he never flew as a pilot-in-command again.

The Economist, 9 March 1946


“The Two and the One” Did you know that Winston Churchill has given a speech in Fulton, Missouri? You did? You heard about that? (She imagines you saying.) The paper interprets the “Iron Curtain” speech as a proposal for an open alliance between the United States and the United Kingdom within the Uno, which I suppose means that Russia is outside it? The paper is pleased, because it thinks that Britain is not nearly anti-Russian enough.

“The Production Drive” The Government’s campaign for greater productivity is a good thing, but “has not started before its time.” It’s Dunkirk, all over again! (Everything is Dunkirk, now.) However, labour ministers don’t want to come out and say in public that trade union men must do an honest day’s work, instead of lollygagging about. Also, the government is too cutting to businessmen.

“Manchuria Again” The wording of the Three Power Agreement at Yalta that restored Russia’s former rights in Manchuria has now been made public. The response in China is understandable even to the paper. The paper points out that those rights have mostly lapsed anyway, that China has never given up sovereignty over Manchuria, which is mostly “ethnic Chinese,” whatever that means. It then goes on to sound like a Luce organ in talking about how “every obstacle” was put in the way of Nationalist troops trying to occupy the region by marcing in unopposed from American ships and Communist-controlled-railways. The paper supposes that the Nationalists, as the true representatives of the Chinese people, will triumph on a groundswell of national feeling as soon as the Americans volunteer to do their fighting for them, as the Nationalist marshals have better things to do with their men and ammunition, such as fight in the Communist-Nationalist civil war in the next campaigning season.

“Housing Policy” The paper thinks that the Government is BUNGLING housing. Both too much money is being spent, and too little (no, that’s what it says! The key of the paradox is that too much is being spent on public building, too little on private), and it is all unimaginative and short sighted.

Notes of the Week

“The Russians Stay in Persia” The Russian Communists are terrible hypocrites who are not leaving Persia.

Fall in German Rations” You would not think that they could fall, but the reduction is, on average, 500 calories a day, and the average civilian ration falls to 1,014 calories a day. “This is the Belsen level up to a few weeks before the finalcollapse.” And hideous as it is, it will fall further in the next few weeks. In the British zone, where rations have hitherto been higher due to expectations of greater grain imports, they must fall very drastically; but there is no case for inequality between the zones. Local surpluses must be shared across the borders; stockpiles must be unearthed, cattle slaughtered, and German fishermen allowed back to the coast of Scotland. “Even the energy to turn the wheel of industry will be lacking.” Britain should do more.

“Unrra Supplies” The underlying causes of the sudden cut apply also to the other Unrra countries. The paper is especially appalled that the Uno has lifted controls on grain and flour. A protest to Mr. Lie has had no effect, and now Unrra has to go onto the market and buy what it can.
Source.  Remember this? Those silly Europeans.

“Defence Policy” Is being BUNGLED.

“Troop Movements in the Middle East” British troops were out of Persia by 2 March, will have left Syria by 30 April, and now Egypt wants a treaty. The paper calls for British troops to at least leave the barracks in the middle of Cairo. Sudanese, meanwhile, are not sure that they want Egyptians in control.

“Boo to General Franco” The three powers give General Franco a stern look-at, and once again invite the Spanish to relieve themselves of the General.

“Spy Ring” The paper reviews the arrests made in Canada so far and concludes that he Russians were looking for technical information (which is a problem given that science ought to be international, and spies ought to be seeking information about foreign explosives), and for information about the imminent American attack across the German border, which tends to show that the Russians are as nuts as we are.

“The Future of London” There should be talking about talking about London local government and development.

“Queen Anne is Dead” She is! And so is some old institution of the Church of England that she started. I think this is an old joke told for the last time, as surely more recent people are going to be “dead” at some point.

“Early Retirement” Old civil servants are sometimes dead weight, and should be allowed to retire early and take all their information about contracts to their old friends in private busi—I mean, enjoy their years in the sun.

“Staggered Holidays” The lower classes don’t really need Christmas Day on Christmas. They can have it on, oh, say, January 6th. And then be offered overtime for working that day. And then told that they don’t actually qualify for overtime.

“The French Re-occupation of Indo-China” Is going ahead, and will surely end well, if the experiences of Tang and Ming are anything to go by. In unrelated news of foreign upheavals, the Greek elections are still going ahead.
By National_Museum_Vietnamese_History_65.jpg: Gryffindorderivative work: Jbarta (talk) - National_Museum_Vietnamese_History_65.jpg, CC BY-SA 3.0,

“Forward from the Right” Mr. Eden calls for efficiency and hard work, but also some modicum of control, and state enterprise, at least as long as imports have to be controlled.

Future of British RestaurantsThe institution, which began during the Blitz, as a means of providing for bombed out families, still exists even though there is no Blitz. So, what next?

“Coupon Concessions” Sir Stafford Cripps has capitulated and allowed the issue of new coupons, with the clothes to come from potential export stocks. The paper disapproves of this, and of the relief from the Austerity designs.

Shorter Notes

IN answer to parliamentary questions, the government releases information about just how much food the lucky coal miners are hogging in their pithead canteens.

American Survey

“Republican Anticipations” From a Correspondent in Ohio

The GOP is increasingly confident that it will take the House in November. It will also make gains in the Senate, but cannot hope to flip it over. So, with eight-months-from-now taken care of, it can move on to worrying about two-years-and-eight-months-away. The GOP’s old corps of Midwestern Progressives is fading, leaving the party more united than ever. For example, the drastic Case Labour Bill is supported by 153 Republicans in the House, as opposed to only 15 against. It is thought that the party’s Midwestern heartland has become more conservative, which is why Taft and Bricker, both Ohioans and conservative, are popular names for ’48. But what of the returned soldier vote? Meanwhile, the “Old Guard,” led by men like the Engineer, still want to reverse the whole New Deal. They are followed by many Republican journalists, who think that the party lost the last three elections by being too moderate and not offering the public a clear alternative to Roosevelt. A real conservative would erase Dewey’s defeat, they say. Hogwash. Governor Warren is the man!

American Notes

“Friendly Firmness” Senator Vandenberg and Secretary Byrnes agree with Churchill. So it’s settled. We have to be firm with Russia, in a friendly way,and possibly have quite a friendly atomic war with them.

“Moneylender’s Finance” Ambassador Kennedy and Phil Murray have spoken out in favour of the Briitsh loan this week. The ambassador because it shores up the bulwarks of anti-Communism, and Mr. Murray because he is a CIO man, and they like that sort of thing. The paper goes on to quote various people who think that the loan should squeeze Britain until the pips squeak, etc.

“Strikes to Come” The Administration is BUNGLING labour relations.

“Food from the Farms” The Secretary of Agriculture has asked farmers for another million acres each of corn, wheat, peas and soya beans, but the call comes late, and “there is little jam to coat the pill.” That is, only 4 cents to the bushel above the price ceiling, not a lot of incentive to sell the grain instead of using it to feed livestock. Also, inflation and signs of an agricultural slump.So paying more for more food to meet the actual demand of hungry people will be futile because agriculture will "slump," and producing more food will lead to inflating food prices.

Shorter Notes

Besides the Patman Bill, Mr. Wyatt’s plan, discussed last week, is being heavily attacked by the real estate lobby. Really, price ceilings on houses is one thing –but the homeowners will own the land. It is deemed increasingly unlikely that Mr. Pauley’s nomination as Secretary of the Navy will succeed.

The World Overseas

“Le Rouge et Noir”

The latest stage of the French crisis involves my eyes glazing over. Skipping to the end, I discover that the current reaction to the Communists (Reds) is not Fascist (Black), but “middle class.” So that’s all fine, then.

“Russian Military Government at Work” By Our Special Correspondent The Russian nation reveals itself to be still a primitive peasant mass; which, on the other hand, is doing well enough in ruling Saxony, which looks positively bucolic; though on the other hand again, it wasn’t bombed; though on the other hand again, the Saxons have not reconciled themselves to Russian rule; though on the other hand again, they are not that discontented; though on the other hand again, they think that they are superior to Russian peasants.

“Irish Trade” From Our Dublin Correspondent

ODC admits that Ireland still has trade, and probably should have trade, just so long as the wrong sort of people don’t end up with money in their pocket. Ireland needs full agricultural efficiency!
Source. I mean, imagine what Irish prosperity would do to day labour wage rates on the farm! This guy is the biggest asshole "corresponding" with The Economist. And there's a competition.

Letters to the Editor

F. V., of London, E.C. 3, writes to explain Pay-As-You-Go income tax some more. G. Mainzer explains about small railway waggons some more. He is on the side of larger cars, which means shorter trains, but, on the other hand, heavier axle loads. Joseph T. Simon notes that British import restrictions lead to Danish farmers breeding small, expensive pigs, rather than large, cheap ones, and that this is bad. Although he then admits that the weight limit is to keep fat pigs out of England rather than meat ones, and so it is actually a good policy (presumably, I do not really know) –but perhaps not right now.

Alfred Mainzer, Dessed Cats, Passsengers and Train, 1926. Source. An early effort in a fifty year career of painting dressed cats for novelty postcards that includes one of cats on the Moon. (Check back here in 2039 for that one.)

The Business World

“Filling the Export Gap” Prewar British exports are compared with future prospects. There is a short run opportunity in coal, and a long-run problem replacing it, once German mines get back into action. Textiles, another major prewar export, are going to be hard to bring up to previous totals, as also iron and steel. That leaves the chemical industry as a prospect for expansion, including new textile materials, and also automobiles. Not a single mention of engineering!

“Building Efficiency” The paper finds evidence for a lack of, what else, full technical efficiency.

Business Notes

A Canadian loan is coming. And in ready cash it is one-quarter of that coming from America, from a country of one-twentieth the national income! The paper moves on to financial news of the kind that make me feel like a child prattling to the Earl: he surely does not want my opinion of the control of investment bill, the Chancellor’s timetable for the next bond issue; the limitation of dividends initiative now being called for; the first days of Bretton Woods; and Mr. Dalton’s increasingly, brutally clear statements that British holders of Japanese bonds cannot expect any compensation of any kind.[!]
From the above. Foreign-held bonds are written off, I guess?

Nationalisation of Steel” Mr. Alexander recently said to some steel workers that this was government policy. The paper demands clarification if it is an undeclared policy. Indian economists note that the country has an embarrassing sterling surplus and dollar deficit, and perhaps Britain could spare some of its hard currency reserves. South Africa’s budget funds its “Kaffir” bonds quite satisfactorily. Professor Jewkes challenges the idea that British industry is inefficient in the latest number of The Manchester School. The paper cannot really argue with his devastating demonstration that reliance on PMH to the exclusion of OHM is completely misleading, but it still thinks that he is wrong.

“Demobilisation of Shipping” This began on 2 March, and led promptly to a rise in rates. For example, grain from the St Lawrence, at 2s 9 ½ d per quarter, is now 12s. This, it is said, is due to the rise in operating costs and in particular to the high price of coal. The question of how long the American charter will be permitted to continue is also in the air, and a problem for us and all of our dear competitors.

The National Coal Board” Is a new national board of the great and worthy.

“Shanghai Exchange Market Re-opening” Unfortunately, Father says that we will have no share of it even if we kowtow to the Soongs. Perhaps we will be squeezed out of the Chinese market; and perhaps the Communists will sweep across the Yang-tse next summer.

There are increased Treasury bill offerings, and the London Stock Exchange has agreed to facilitate small investors who want to come onto the exchange. The Ministry of Labour Gazette has published industry wages as from last July. Engineering is the best business to be in for labour.

Flight, 14 March 1946


“Preparing for To-morrow” To-morrow is only a day away, and where in Heaven’s name are our turbine airliners?

“The New Rates of Pay” The White Paper on Defence establishes new rates of pay for senior officers. The paper thinks that it is too little, too late.

“’Indicator’ Discusses Topics of the Day: Passenger Psychology: The Price of Pressurisation: Considering the Farepayer’s Mental Comfort: Control Cabin Screen Layouts” Cabins that can take pressurisation need to be circular or near circular, and window space needs to be reduced. This is a problem, and “Indicator” floats the idea of not pressurising the flight cabin at all, since the nose of the aircraft is so much harder to pressurise, and windows there more important. He also notes just how hard pressurisation is, and says that, contrary to the public relations people, the problems are far from solved. Cabin furniture, he thinks, will break up the dreaded circular section effect, and so is worthwhile, even if it adds to weight. He also prefers tricycle gears, since passengers are not mountain climbers, and notes that the window problem is really serious already, and that pressurisation will make it worse. He likes the movable fairing of the Republic Rainbow as a solution.

“The ‘Brabazon I’ Controversy: Are Big Aircraft Worth While: All-Out or Nothing” The Brabazon I prototype will not fly until 1947 or 1948, and it will not be in service until 1950/1, so now is the time to plan in a big way, since it will have turbine-airscrew units, and the big Americans will not, since no suitable American power plants are in development. Thus, the Brabazon may well rout the giant Americans from the field. People who worry about runways worry too much.

Here and There

American water-skiing champion Bruce Packer has water-skied behind a Luscombe. The RAF is to make some long-distance training flights to the Dominions, India, the Far East and such. Dr. Cecil Gordon, who applied operational research to double Coastal Command anti U-boat raids, has moved on to the Board of Trade, where he is in charge of More! Exports! Isn’t everyone in charge of More! Exports!? A paper to the Scottish Engineering Students establishes that radar is just the age-old principle of sending out and signals and receiving them back. Which it is not. The "return" signal is re-radiated. But this is clearly too hard to understand.

The U.S. Navy has “recently disclosed” that the first, although unpremeditated, jet landing on an aircraft carrier was recently carried out by a Ryan Fireball whose piston engine had failed. The paper is livid, since, of course, it was a de Havilland Vampire that claimed that honour, several months ago. Great Western Railway is ordering an experimental gas-turbine locomotive, rather like the one that Brown-Boveri has been operating for years in an attempt to drum up business. Those poor Swiss.

The paper also notices “Prudence,” The RAF safety pin-up girl, created by Section Officer Ruth Walker.  

Cunliffe-OwenConcordia: Useful 10-12 Seater Feeder-line Type Under Construction: Tricycle Undercarriage: Alvis Leonides Engine” Cunliffe-Owen, the indefatigable aircraft builders behind no aircraft ever actually offered for sale, propose to enter this already over-full market with a plane powered by yet another “modern,” “medium power” nine-cylinder, single row radial engine.

“Turbine/Piston Aero Engine: Summary of an Interesting Paper Read Before the RAeS by Dr. H. R. Ricardo, F.R.Ae.S.” The famed diesel pioneer is back to explain how a piston engine hooked up to a sufficiently powerful turbosupercharger is already effectively a gas turbine aero engine, and with a two-stroke diesel you can take this all the way. He notes the thermodynamic advantage of pistons over a compressor burner arrangement, and skates over the additional mechanical complexity.

Sir Arthur Sidgreaves has retired from Rolls-Royce. Ernie Hives will succeed him.

“The Monaco Engine[?]: New British Flat-Four Light-Aircraft Engine in 75hp and 100hp Sizes: Simplicity Allied to Advanced Design Features” That’s it. I am officially giving up on “value plays” and throwing in with Uncle Henry. There is no limit to the amount of money stock pumpers are ready to take from the dumber would-be aviation technology investor.

“An Ingenious Light Twin: Points from the Portsmouth Aviation Aerocar Series: Comfort and Full Equipment: Ambitious Designs: Cirrus or Gipsy Engines” Etc.

Dr. F. W.Lanchester, who invented everything, has died. Fortunately, Alfred Lee Loomis, who also invented everything, is still alive, as see below.

“British Fighters To-day: Graceful Passing of the Airscrew Era: ‘Jets’ Make Their Debut” Jet fighters exist more! Also, Tempests and Spitefuls and Hornets are very pretty! (I would say that about Firebrands, but I would be lying.)

Civil Aviation   

“Transatlantic Trio: BOAC’s Boeing Service to Bermuda Withdrawn: Regular Flying Schedule Maintained Since 1941 with Three Flying Boats” With extra fuel tanks, these planes, bought from Pan-American in 1941, were originally intended to fly a direct route Poole-Takoradi to provide a link to the trans-African route to India. Then the notion of flying them on to America came from somewhere. Many famous people have flown on the clippers. Servicing, at Lagos, was very challenging in the early days, and major overhauls had to be scheduled at Baltimore, minor ones at Hythe.

A primtive transport vehicle of another era. Also, a dhow in the foreground.

“Planning for North Atlantic Safety: First of a Series of Conferences: Standardisation of Navigational Aids and Practices” Standardising practices is the best sort of talking about talking! No, I’m sorry. To give The Economist its due, local government planning is the best sort of talking about talking, although “Standardising practices” might be the best you can do in aviation.

Civil Aviation News

An order for Wayfarers has been received from the Channel Islands Airways, so they are not theoretical any more. The Tudor II has been trialled. Seventy-nine have been ordered. BOAC’s Constellations will be delivered next month. BOAC has further extended its European services. BOAC transatlantic passengers will no longer be required to report at Terminal House in London the week before their flight for a briefing. A new agreement has cut transatlantic fares. (For example, New York Londono has gone from 93 15 to 90 0. A Lancastrian has flown a new record to New Zealand. Of note, it was carrying three copies of last week’s Flight for lucky colonials, who will not have to suffer with (old) facsimiles, as I do. While it is there, it will have to do with “Pacific Affairs” with Lords Winster and Knollys.

Dorothy has the nicest house on the aiport tarmac!

American Newsletter

“Kibitzer” explains about how the Foreign Liquidations Committee is dumping American surplus on the world, and that Americans are convinced that they will be done out of foreign markets by wily British salesmen, so there is no point complaining that it is not fair, because the Americans also think that British salesmen are not fair. The Loan bill, which is now before Congress, is being bitterly resisted by Burton Wheeler and Edwin C. Johnson, because, of course, that is what they do. (“Kibitizer” is less sanguine, and seems to think that Wheeler believes what comes out of his own mouth, when the truth is that he doesn’t even hear it.) Work continues at Idlewild. He suggests that some method, perhaps oil spraying, needs to be found to lay the dust at Idlewild, as it can be a problem both in summer and winter. The Philadelphia airfields will be even grander than Idlewild, and “Kibitzer” reports that Americans think that the British should not be bothering with Tudors, etc, and should move on directly to new designs.

Anthony A. Fletcher, “Stress Without Strain, Part II” This new, simplified method requires two articles to explain.

“Liquid Ignition” A method of igniting an internal combustion engine with spontaneous ignition of a liquid sprayed into the piston heads was perfected in Germany in 1942—3. This “Ring-Process: “appears to be an interesting but minor development.”


C. Nepean Bishop thinks that the Government is BUNGLING club subsidies. “474” wishes that private flying was cheaper so that he could do it now that he is demobilised. “Realist” agrees with “Indicator” that Americans are terrible and bad. “Indicator” replies that his point was actually that everyone should be realistic. D. Theobald explains what the private flyer wants. It is yet another twin-boom pusher design.  J. Lobley of Gloster corrects the paper’s calculations, which seem to give the Sea Fury greater thrust efficiency than the Meteor. Roy H. Brett explains that people should want light aircraft, and once they realise that, we should make them and export them to all the foreigners we have explained at.

Fortune, March 1946

Fortune’s Wheel

Saul Steinberg is a method cartoonist who ate all the breakfast cereals he was commissioned to draw ads for as part of work which involved him in soap operas, which get a long article in this number.
Of course he didn't try all the detergents, because doing laundry is women's work.

Alfred Loomis is so footloose that he challenged even the paper’s team, which has been wandering all over the continent to secure interviews with Karl Compton of MIT, Earnest Lawrence of Berkeley, and to catch James B. Conant anywhere. It finally visited Mr. Loomis on his private island off Georgia. The paper also tells us that it has been trying to get Lise Meitner into the country for four years, and now she is finally here to split atoms for us. The paper also has a story by editor John Kenneth Galbraith, which is an outgrowth of his work for the Strategic Bombing Survey in Germany and Japan. The paper tells the story of how Galbraith was so engrossed in a conversation in Tokyo that, walking down the street, he fell  into an open manhole , only things went well,  because in Japan the holes are so short that the enormously tall Galbraith still towered above it. A tall tale?

 “Watch the AF of L.” For the last ten years, the CIO has dominated the scene, but look to the AFL to come back and split off some of the CIO’s member unions.

“Back to the Twenties?” Uncle Henry’s attempt to crash Detroit depended heavily on stock-issue financing, and there are questions about how the SEC came to approve it, and whether it should have. So will Uncle Henry eventually sell cars, as well as shares? The question had not even occurred to this girl. (Imagine that you can see my eyes rolling! I'm sure yours are.)
Willow Run is ready for new tenants.

“The Budget and Subsidies” Hardly anyone ever looks at the Federal Budget, but the paper has. It likes what it sees. Receipts of 31.5 billion, outlays of 35.8, deficit of 4.3. The paper disapproves of any deficit at all,  but at least it is small, and cutting government expenditures is clearly hard. The one area where it should clearly cut, and cut hard, is on subsidy payments.

“Stretching a Point Too Far” Before the war, the U.S. consumed some 500,000 tons of rubber, almost all of it natural, from Southeast Asia. This year, it will produce 900,000 tons of synthetic rubber. Military men are arguing that this industry should be supported by subsidy in case World War II happens again. The paper thinks that if we’re going to spend buckets of dough on bases all through the Pacific in case WWII happens again, perhaps we can economise here. The industry replies that it can “stabilise” the world market. The paper says that this isn’t the least fishy, considering that the people arguing for government-run rubber plants have interest in bidding for them.

“Plain Speaking” If we can’t have WWII again, perhaps we can move on to WWIII? The paper is very pleased with Mr. Bevin’s blunt speaking with the Russians over Greece and such.

“Reversal in Rubber” My bet is that the American industry will wither away, and that there is considerable room to expand the planting side, so I am going to ignore this article, even though it has pretty pictures. Though Detroit’s annual demand of 1.5 million tons means that the synthetic industry will take some time to wither.

“A Good Man is Hard to Find: The OSS Learned How, With New Selection Methods That May Serve Industry” I had occasion to mention OSS’s success in finding good men to Fat Chow. The laughs, the good times, the stories. . .

“Adventures of Henry and Joe in Auto land” More detail on Uncle Henry’s adventure. The stock subscription was $53 million! “The company may vanish in an iridescent burst, like a new South Sea Bubble; or it may rocket ahead to dislocate the Big Three.” At least I haven’t heard from the Earl on the matter of why we haven’t bought. . . On the other hand, even Uncle Henry may make a go of it with Willow Run in gift.

“War Surplus: Sell It While It’s Hot: Which Means by Next Autumn, or It Will Burden the U.S. Economy for Years” I am not sure why there’s a deadline, but I will take one of those new battleships for five pennies, an apple core and some orange peel! (I would use some “Southern Grammar” to go with my Tom Sawyer impression if I knew how to translate it. . . .)
It is like one of those ads about how business should invest in Santa Clara County, or the Puget Sound area, or Kansas, except that it is a full article.

“Mobile, Alabama: A Portfolio of a Southern City after the War Boom” Mobile was a typical southern city with a few small industries and a lot of Jim Crow until the war boom got there and filled it with war industries and got whites and Coloureds competing for the same jobs at the same wages. Now that the war boom is over, it will go back to the prewar status –except Mobilians hope that it will keep the industries. To help in this, it is neglecting things like schools and paving, which would just lead to trouble. ON the other hand, the $312 million paid out in war wages over two years is in large part still in bank deposits, and will be hard to contain. One would think that a city determined not to give Coloureds with money opportunities will just lose the Coloureds. . .

Pretty much the point the paper is trying to make here. Hands up anyone else who misses pro-civil rights Republicans.

“Soap Operas” It would never have made the paper two years ago, but radio domestic dramas (not that the kind of things that happen on soap operas happen in many real homes) are big business. Serials take up about half the broadcasting time during the day on NBC and CBS, so commerce had better pay attention! The paper is appalled by their humourlessness and the fact that they “flatter” women, but a very respected doctor (Herta Herzog) thinks that they re driving women crazy by encouraging them to express themselves, which can lead to nothing good.
The paper is appalled by their humourlessness and the fact that they “flatter” women, but a very respected doctor (Herta Herzog) thinks that they re driving women crazy by encouraging them to express themselves, which can lead to nothing good.
I felt so smug when I came up with this "theory" for myself as an undergraduate.

“Japan’s Road Back: The Hurdles: Starvation and Inflation, Reparations and Reform” Comparing Tokyo and Berlin, on the one hand, three quarters of Tokyo burned down. There is nothing like the empty prairie of occasional corrugated steel shelters in Berlin that one sees from the train in Tokyo. ON the other hand, the train, and street cars, do run in Tokyo; and water and electricity were also soon restored. Tax collectors, post men, and creditors continue to make their rounds. More burning, less smashing, and the dark art of “annihilation of organisation” was carried less far. Whether the Japanese can rebuild and recreate themselves as peaceful citizens of the world is still in doubt. Industry, which was, before the war, and still after it, mostly light, has much to do. Even in the peak war year, stell production was only 8 million tons. Much of Japan’s light industry was also attacked by recycling efforts to meet war needs. Pipes and radiators and cables torn out, etc. A large part of its merchant fleet has been lost. At least the hydroelectric infrastructure, which provided 80% of the country’s power, is intact, but not coal mining, which has suffered mightily. The country also needs to restore its relationship with its traditional markets, and find food for the population. “There is little real hope that it will be solved in time.” The trusts need to be broken up, and there is still the question of reparations. Patience, and American support is needed.

“Alfred Lee Loomis: Amateur of the Scientists: Business is to Brain Waves as Wall Street is to Tuxedo Park: Proof: This Wealthy Adventurer in Apparatus” The paper wants to be invited to Mr. Loomis’s next party.
Here, just a minute, let me find my Sledgehammer o'Subtlety. Okay: one more time: rich and famous people get to pretend that they've invented things in America. Especially foreigh things. And, even, years later on Wikipedia, no-one calls the bullshit, because they were rich and famous. Something something TPP. 

“The Nature of the Atom” The paper is jealous of all the money that Grade 120 junior science textbooks make. Other people whose parties the paper is eager to be invited to, but not that eager, are James Mooney, Charles Sorensen, Frank W. Abrams, Arthur B. Homer and Harry Shulman. Who is sad because he doesn’t have a middle initial.
It turns out that the "Asian girls like science" stereotype is decades older than I thought.

Books and Ideas

The paper reviews Professor A. G. B. Fisher’s EconomicProgress and Social Security. As a liberal professor, he thinks they go together, because only with security can their be mobility of labour. Other thrillers of the month include Orville McDiarmid’s Commercial Policy in the Canadian Economy and Keith Hutchison’s Rival Partners: America and Britain in the Postwar World, plus Frederick L. Schuman’s Soviet Politics at Home and Abroad and A. Phillip Randolph’s The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. There is also a one-paragraph review of a book about stock ownership for wage earners.

Fortune’s Management Poll

 American businessmen think that there should be no link between profits and wages, and that they are the custodians of social consciousness in business. Labour has no sense of responsibility, although they are willing to concede that responsibilities like health and full employment belong mostly to other people.

Business Abroad

France’s black market is producing odd results, such as a case where the easiest and cheapest way to get wool to make a blanket was to unravel white socks. France is still making trouble for American movie exports. So are other countries. The Belgian coal crisis is over, thanks to the conscription of German POWs. France, however, still depends on imports, especially with so much production “leaking.” Germany, which is exporting a million tons a month, is in even worse shape. Russia, meanwhile, wants electric power and plans to build ten million kilowatts, mostly hydroelectric. The Labour government will carry through with the Churchill government’s plan for a public monopoly on west African cocoaexports. The franc is being devalued.

Fortune Shorts

This feature covers Finn H. Magnus’s plastic mouth organs, and controversy over the question of whether America is, or is not, short of strategic minerals. For example, current reserves give “only” 34 years of copper. On the other hand, there is 195 years of coal, which is deemed sufficient. Check back in 194, one might suggest. Stocks are down, and the paper notes the XB-42 crash as an introduction to the question of aerial insurance. It appears that not everyone agrees that its crash was just something that happened. Some people even think that there isn't enough engine cooling in the arrangement!

Ladd Haystead’s column does not appear. Oh, no.

Aviation,  March 1946

Line Editorial

James H. McGraw thinks that the “President’s Wage-Price Control Policy Won’t Work,” mainly because controls must be relaxed much more slowly and gradually. 

Aviation,  March 1946

Down the Years in AVIATION’s Log

Twenty-five years ago, the British had developed a dirigible mooring mast, the Army had a new night observation plane, the USXB1-A, with a “Wright Model H” engine. Eighty-eight aircraft operating companies in America and Canada flew 3,136,550 miles that year. Air mail was crossing America in 33 hours 20 minutes, and the Handley-Page London-Paris air service was discontinued because all the investors’ cheques had already been cashed because of French competition. Fifteen years ago, American commercial airlines flew 100 million passenger miles, and their 26 fatalities was six times better than European lines. The War Department budgeted $1,190,000 for new aircraft, and Goodyear introducd a self-propelled dirigible mast. Ten years ago, UAL ordered ten DC-3s, Fairchild delivered 10-place Clippers to Pan-American for “Brazilian and Chinese river service,” and General Mitchell died of heart trouble.

Line Editorial

James H. McGraw thinks that the “President’s Wage-Price Control Policy Won’t Work,” mainly because controls must be relaxed much more slowly and gradually.

Aviation Editorial Leslie Neville thinks that General Arnold is a swell guy.

Looking at the unpromising table of contents, I see a selection of articles on private airfield operations and the importance of trained salesmen for aircraft sales. In the way of research, there is quite a good design analysis of the BMW 003 by Major Rudolph Schulte, but who cares? J. S. Alford, at the Aircraft Gas Turbine Division of General Electric, writes on “Designing Ducting Systems to Gain Better Turbojet Performance,” which seems important, but hardly novel.
Now where was my sledgehammer? Oh, yeah. The problem with articles like this is that they can end up as "sources" proving that the writer "invented" something that he actually only described. And if it passes muster in a Texas court . . . 

 W. O. Meckley tells us that “Exhaust Ejector Improves Both Turbo Cooling and Propulsion,” which, again . . James will point out that Rolls Royce has been doing this for years, and the line from America then was that it was better to use the residual overpressure in the exhaust precisely to run the turbochargers.

C. E. Wilderman, a metallurgist at Utica Drop Forge and Test Corporation, has an interesting paper on “Controlled-Stage Process Finish-Forges Turbojet Blades.” The reason that it took so long for combustion gas turbines to follow steam is precisely that it was so hard to make turbine blades which delivered useful power. Now that we understand fluid dynamics so much better, we can also understand how important accurate profiles and a smooth finish actually are. Drop forges would not seem to have much of a place in this work, since they are usually understood as being for cheap, rather than accurate work. For the latter, pressure forging is usually considered superior, and even for cheap work, extrusions are making inroads. So it is certainly interesting to hear that Utica is making progress with more closely-controlled drop forges.

Showing a weak grasp of what “aviation research” might actually be, the paper also has an eighth installment of Upson on “Designing Tomorrow’s Personal Plane,” which is all about “solving for x,” where “x” is the thing that the buyer actually wants. Someone’s high school algebra teacher needs a talking-to. Though at least that’s better use of paper than E.G. Stout’s fourth installment on landing analysis of water planes. Chester S. Ricker explains how “Engine Reliability Enhanced by “Stresscoat” Analysis, II.”

And then there are two articles on “aerocars.” One is British!

The other is. . . 

In the news, the XP-81 is being put through Army trials, and Mr. Hoadley is pleased with new plans to promote exports.

Aviation News

The Army and Navy are moving to all jet fleets. The AAF has the Northrop XB-49, the Boeing XB-47, the Martin XB-48, the Douglas XB-43, the North American XB-45, and the Convair XB-46 on order. The Curtiss XA-43 is yet another “attack plane” to take over the role from fighter bombers.

New jet fighters include the Republic XP-84, McDonnell XP-85, and North American XP-86. Boeing’s giant conventional fighter gets another mention. The Navy has the Ryan Fireball, a jet version of the Vought Corsair, and the McDonnell XFD-1 Phantom, while North American offers the XFJ-1. Jet engine development continues at Wright, Packard, Allison, General Electric, Westinghouse, and a company whose name ends with “-plet” and which has been blotted out in my proof copy.

In less day-after-tomorrow news, Lt. General Levin H. Campbell, the retiring Chief of Army Ordnance, recently disclosed that the army has a radio-controlled rocket weapon capable of a 50 mile altitude, from which it can reach any target on the Earth. In the future, even gun-fired projectiles will have rockets to sustain momentum. The First Experimental Guided Missiles Group has een activated at Elgin Field, Florida. In much -more day-after-tomorrow news, the Army “Sees Radar as Key to Space.” On the one hand, the recent radar contact with the moon shows that space machines can be electronically controlled beyond the atmosphere. On the other, it makes it seem possible that machines carrying people may eventually operate in interplanetary space.

The paper believes that the new budget favours the air, and reports that, with modern technology, all-weather flying can be “scouted.” The paper thinks that military aviation should be integrated, and hopes that the atom test will resolve important questions. The IAS Annual Meeting gave several awards to seveal people. James perked up at reading that Doc Draper got the “Sylvanus Albert Reed Award,” but the others do not ring a bell, and sometimes seem deliberately vague. “Richard Hutton [receives] Lawrence Sperry Award for contributions in development of carrier-based aircraft.”
Washington Windsock

Wherever Blaine Stubblefield has been for the last two months, he is back, and just as vapid. H. Stokes Walesby says that from now on, cities should be built around airports, rather than airports around cities! The Army and Navy fought in American in the past, and the Japanese army and navy fought in Japan, and Stubblefield thinks that the American army and navies will fight in peacetime! “Some backers of private flying want NACA to tackle propeller and engine noise, folding wings. . .” etc. Others think –what? That NACA should keep its nose out of the following arbitrary list of research items? That it should stop researching and become a rival major baseball league? How does this man get paid for this?

Worlddata By “Vista”

Also back is the guy who is paid to reprint stuff from Flight. (Why, yes, I am worried about my job!) He reprints all the very big numbers about the ATA that you can read there. Thank you! We are told that KLM is expanding, and has 20 C-54s, and wants 4 DC-4s, 4 Constellations, and a DC-3 in the first half of 1946. It  might also buy the Martin 202, and is said to be ordering 72 cargo gliders from Fokker, which would be one of the first indications I am aware of that the “air train” is actually going to happen. Making up for earlier neglect, “Vista” notices “Heath Row,” the “World’s greatest airport,” which will cost 100 million dollars, and have 4 miles of 300ft concrete runways. Located 12 miles from central London, it will be within20 minutes once the railway spur is completed.

Finland is operating DC-2s and Ju 52s, and is awaiting Russian permission to operate a Stockholm service with eventual extension to London.

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