|"Posterity will hear of these Battles," said the most unfortunate Flight title ever.|
|Air Component Headquarters|
|HQ Air Component||-||Air Vice-Marshall C.H.B. Blount|
No 14 Group
|HQ No. 14 Group||-||Group Captain P.F. Fullard|
|60 (Fighter) Wing|
|HQ 60 Wing||Wing Commander J.A. Boret|
|85 Squadron||Hurricane Mk I||Lille-Seclin|
|87 Squadron||Hurricane Mk I||Senon|
|61 (Fighter) Wing|
|HQ 61 Wing||Wing Commander R.Y. Eccles|
|607 Squadron||Hurricane Mk I|
|615 Squadron||Hurricane Mk I|
|A flight : Le Touquet|
B flight : Abbeville
|63 (Fighter) Wing - created on 10 May 1940|
|HQ 63 Wing||?||only mentioned in source (2)|
|3 Squadron||Hurricane Mk I||Merville|
|79 Squadron||Hurricane Mk I||Merville|
|70 (Bomber Reconnaissance) Wing|
|HQ 70 Wing||Wing Commander W.A. Opie|
|18 Squadron||Blenheim Mk V|
|57 Squadron||Blenheim Mk V|
|52 (Bomber) Wing|
|HQ 52 Wing||Wing Commander A.F. Hutton|
|53 Squadron||Blenheim Mk IV|
|55 (?) Squadron||source (2) says 59 Squadron|
|50 (Army Co-operation) Wing|
|HQ 50 Wing||Group Captain A.R. Churchman|
|51 (Army Co-operation) Wing|
|HQ 51 Wing||Wing Commander A.H. Flower|
|81 (C) Squadron||Dragon||Communications Squadron|
|Advanced Air Striking Force Headquarters|
|HQ Air Component||-||Air Vice-Marshall P.H.L. Playfair|
|67 (Fighter) Wing|
|HQ 67 Wing||Wing Co. C. Walter|
|1 Squadron||Hurricane Mk I||Wassincourt|
|73 Squadron||Hurricane Mk I||Rouvre|
|212 Squadron||Photographic Recce Squadron. Only mentioned in source (1)|
|501 Squadron||Hurricane Mk I||Bethenville||Arrived 10 May 1940. Only mentioned in source (2)|
|No. 71 (Bomber) Wing|
|HQ 71 Wing||Air Commodore R.M. Field|
|105 Squadron||Fairey Battle||Villeneuve|
|114 Squadron||Blenheim Mk IV||Condé|
|139 Squadron||Blenheim Mk IV||Plivot|
|150 Squadron||Fairey Battle||Ecury|
|75 (Bomber) Wing|
|HQ 75 Wing||Group Captain A.H. Wann|
|88 Squadron||Fairey Battle||Mourmelon|
|103 Squadron||Fairey Battle||Betheniville|
|208 Squadron||Fairey Battle||Auberive||source (2) gives 218 Squadron instead|
|76 (Bomber) Wing|
|HQ 76 Wing||Group Captain H.S. Kerby|
|12 Squadron||Fairey Battle||Amifontaine|
|142 Squadron||Fairey Battle||Berry-au-Bac|
|226 Squadron||Fairey Battle||Reims|
|98 Squadron||Fairey Battle||Nantes||Acted as a reserve for Fairey Battle squadrons. Only mentioned in source (2)|
- (1) The War in France and Flanders, L.F. ELLIS, London : Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1953. SO Code : No. 63-111-2-2*
- (2) La campagne de France (1e partie) : La bataille du Nord, Batailles Aériennes no. 7 Jan-Feb-Mar 1999
Length: 42 ft 4 in (12.91 m)
Wingspan: 54 ft 0 in (16.46 m)
Height: 15 ft 6 in (4.72 m)
Wing area: 422 ft² (39.2 m²)
Empty weight: 6,647 lb (3,015 kg)
Loaded weight: 10,792 lb (4,895 kg)
Powerplant: 1 × Rolls-Royce Merlin II liquid-cooled V12 engine, 1,030 hp (768 kW)
Maximum speed: 257 mph (223 kn, 413 km/h) at 15,000 ft (4,600 m)
Range: 1,000 mi (870 nmi, 1610 km)
Service ceiling: 25,000 ft (7,620 m)
Climb to 5,000 ft (1,520 m): 4 min 6 sec
1× .303 in (7.7 mm) Browning machine gun in starboard wing
1× .303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers K machine gun in rear cabin
4× 250 lb (110 kg) bombs internally
500 lb (230 kg) of bombs externally
DH.98 Mosquito B Mk XVI
(The definitive bomber version).
Data from Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II and World War II Warbirds
Crew: 2: pilot, bombardier/navigator
Length: 44 ft 6 in (13.57 m)
Wingspan: 54 ft 2 in (16.52 m)
Height: 17 ft 5 in (5.3 m)
Wing area: 454 ft2 (42.18 m2)
Empty weight: 14,300 lb (6,490 kg)
Loaded weight: 18,100 lb (8,210 kg)
Max. takeoff weight: 25,000 lb (11,000 kg)
Powerplant: 2 × Rolls-Royce Merlin 76/77 (left/right) liquid-cooled V12 engine, 1,710 hp (1,280 kW) each
Maximum speed: 361 kn (415 mph (668 km/h)) at 28,000 ft (8,500 m)
Range: 1,300 nmi (1,500 mi (2,400 km)) with full weapons load
Service ceiling: 37,000 ft (11,000 m)
Rate of climb: 2,850 ft/min (14.5 m/s)
Wing loading: 39.9 lb/ft2 (195 kg/m2)
Power/mass: 0.189 hp/lb (311 W/kg)
Bombs: 4,000 pounds (1,800 kg)
|Renata cable ferry, sometime before 1965.|
. . . Luftflotte 2 supported Army Group B; its strength on 10 May included some 170 medium bombers and some 550 single-engine fighter aircraft and heavy fighters and although these numbers were not active during the first days of operation. The Oberkommando der Luftwaffe (OKL) reinforced Luftflotte 2 in the morning of 15 May with I. Fliegerkorps from Luftflotte 3 (which had some 300 medium bombers on 10 May). Above all, VIII. Fliegerkorps (which had some 300 Junkers Ju 87 Stukas on strength on 10 May and which specialised in ground-support operations) supported Hoepner at Gembloux.
|I haven't stolen nearly enough stuff from Wikipedia already today. The Meuse at Sedan. Source: By Donar Reiskoffer, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=105904|
Although the Hawker Sea Fury is an individual design, its structure has been developed step-by-step from its forebears. The Hurricane had a tubular fuselage and a metal-covered wing: on the Typhoon, the rear fueselagte becacme a monocoque; while in the Tempest the semi-elliptical wing appeared. The wing of the Fury is generally similar in construction to that of the Tempest; but differs in the important poitn that it is continuous benath the fuselage instead of being bolted to the sides. With the introduction of folding wings, when development was centred on the Navay Sea Fiury in 1945, further modifications were made that resulted int he present wing design.
This gradual growth, type from type, over a period of years, has, in many ways, assisted the design engineers, so that a fairly closely integrated production control exists at Hawkers . . .
And this is the next step, at least at Consolidated. (I don't think that a design as small as the Fury would need to be lofted, but you get the idea.)
And this is one of any number of devices for replacing "brain work," and making the Fury possible.
It's not the best example I can think of, but it is the best I could come up with before I gave up on searching my hard drive. Sorry: some day I'll be patient enough to dig up that weird Boeing automatic drawing table again.
No, wait. As soon as I say that, I find it again.
I know that it doesn't look like "artificial intelligence," but considering that 21st Century artificial intelligence researchers gave up on AI that looks like AI ("Open the pod bay doors," etc), I'm not apologising. Much.
Machines, people, skills. Wrapping our minds around these communities of practice requires some kind of geography of the mind: a place to put them. Fortunately in this case, they are also geographies of place!
|This picture was taken by Ant Basterfield, from the old dispersal pads for the Bristol Aeroplane shadow factory, near Hutton, North Somerset. Some thousand BEaufighters were built here during the war, and many Westland helicopters, after. Source. Nowadays it looks like it would be a good site for a grow-op or something.|
Like many of the shadow factories of WWII, Bristol Hutton does not sound like it had a terribly impressive war. The Beaufighter has had intermittent good press, but it is still the plane that the RAF was stuck with until the Mosquito came along, and who really cares about the boring postwar British industrial economy of Andy Capp and everyone on the dole, etc, etc. Financial services! That's where it's at!
Britain built 26 "shadow factories" to serve the air war proper. Since my copy of Roger David's Shadow Factories is apparently walking to Vancouver, and I am certainly not off to the library to dig through Postan on British War Production, I will settle here for Wikipedia here, and its [incomplete] list.Twenty-six factories, twenty-six communities of practice. It would be easy to tell a melancholy story of decline and despair framed around abandoned shadow factories, but it would also be a misleading one. Castle Bromwich, which actually got as far as making Lancasters during the war, is still doing stampings, final assemblies, and detailing for Tata Motor's Jaguar marquee, although the plant seems to be on borrowed time. On the other hand, as you will notice if you follow up on the Clifton link, and find out about the Magnesium Elektron corporation (long since incorporated into a larger Group), which makes hafnium for the British nuclear submarine fleet.
This might be telling, in that it was another intervention by the military-industrial complex which redirected Clifton. Who knows if it would not be another housing estate or distribution centre were it not for that contract. Or underperfoming, like Castle Bromwich.
If this is getting to sound like another encomium precisely to defence needs as leading, pulling and directing industry towards technological frontiers of practice, well, that's because it is. It doesn't need to be an endorsement of it, as long as there's another way of going about giving industry a helpful shove in the right direction. It's just that there doesn't seem to be.
A big push, administered by Neville Chamberlain, of all people, in 1937:
An impetus, begun in terms of Blenheims, completed in terms of Land Rovers, just about the time that these young men would have retired. Now exhausted? I don't know. I do know that closing down communities of practice means opening them up again before they can exist once more. Once you close a factory, in other words, something has to happen before it opens up again. Maybe the invisible hand of the market will accomplish that.
I can, however, tell you that relying on the invisible hand to work the ice cream when you can't get a clerk in to do it has not been successful for us laely.
But something something comparative advantage.
*(Every credit is due to France 1940, but unfortunately this is another of those disembodied voice websites. Thank you, Some Guy!) Also, the actual source is the official history, Elles, War in France and Flanders.)
1). Carbonitriding. Obviously written by an engineer rather than a physicist, and one would prefer a description in terms of quantum chemistry, as this would make it clearer that "resistance to impact loading," as they say in the automotive industry, is actually an issue of thermal conductivity and resistance to dislocation migration. This would make it less counterintuitive that carbonitriding is also used to protect surfaces against heat and chemical attack, for example (probably) in the barrel of the 17 pounder. I should also admit down here that the actual purpose of the Banner Lane plant was to produce parts for Bristol Hercules engines, and not tank transmissions. I am still going to make the claim, though, as wider use of carbonitriding plant would have brought down its costs and made longer production runs practical.