Your Loving Daughter,
Many correspondents are upset that Mary van Rensselaer Thayer has received a reserve lieutenant colonel's commission in the Air Force, because she is a woman. Some, to be fair, are upset b because she is rich and famous, but, mainly, it is because she is a woman. T. S. Medford of Norfolk, Virginia gets the "Misogynist of the Week" honours by suggesting that that Gypsy Rose Lee deserves the promotion more because she is a stripper. In a spirit of "equal opportunity," Time also prints a large number of letters denouncing Nehru on the grounds that he is an Indian. More Time readers are upset at women than Indians. Racial justice progress! Selden Smith, arguing on the grounds that he has lost a son in Korea, believes that negotiating peace is wrong and that we should just go on, I don't know, blowing everybody up forever because negotiations are bad. P. S. Porohovshikov is upset that the President said that all dictators are bad, because some Roman guy named Cincinnatus was way better than Lenin. Our Publisher wants us to know that Time is opening a bureau in Hong Kong under Robert Neville, has various correspondents on assignment in Asia, is happy about all the fan mail Senator Paul Douglas has received, and clarifies that Andrew C. Ivey's "push-pull" respiratory machine has never actually been used on a patient, but one life guard in Miami was inspired to try it on a five-year-old and writes that it works. Except that he was just "push pulling" instead of giving mouth-to-mouth, whatever that is, and not using a machine that doesn't really exist yet.
In other crime news, Bill Remington is going to jail for lying about being a Communist, and his former mother-in-law, Mrs. Elizabeth Moos, is in trouble along with "William E. DuBois, 82, Negro writer, who ran for the Senate on the New York American Labor Party ticket last fall," for being sponsors of the Peace Information Centre without registering as foreign agents. (Secretly, "William DuBois" is actually the one and only W. E. B. Du Bois. I'm not positive that Time was trying to pull a fast one here, but it sure seems like it.)
The fact that this story was published at all, and in Time, is very, very bad news for MacArthur. It is also bad news for some parish politician from Louisiana who had to go up to Washington to appear before the Kefauver committee, and for New Yorkers, who have enough water this year, but, on the other hand, are getting an estimated soot fall of 384,000 tons a year in the area 40 miles around New York City, which is more than Pittsburgh at peak. Besides the "185,000 particles of dirt" in every breath, New Yorkers are also breathing arsenic, carbon monoxide and chlorine from "the city's spewing factory chimneys."
"His Majesty Protests" Time is all a-giggle over the closing of the British consulate in Tihwa, because Britain recognised Red China and now the Red Chinese are kicking their consulate out of Sinkiang, and the British are protesting, showing that Communism is bad and that ineffectual British Europeans are ineffectual.
Time is appalled that the non-Western countries in the UN aren't lining up behind America on various resolutions relating to bombing Manchuria and invading Formosa. Meanwhile, now that Turkey is part of the Western alliance, it is practically a utopia of anti-communist democracy.
"Plenty of Sleeping Pills" Everyone agrees that Britain is muddling right now, and not in a "muddling through" kind of way due to the electricity and gas cuts, newsprint and meat shortage, dockers strikes, the 8000 people dead of the flu, the King asking for £40,000 to tide him through till payday, the reserves call-up for summer manoeuvres not being long enough, the defence bill not being big enough, and some Labour MPs being a bit wet on pacifism. One British doctor says that all of this strain is making British people take sleeping pills like vegetables, and, after all, they're free under NHS!
"Firm Foundations" John Foster Dulles left Tokyo for Manila last week after telling journalists at the airport that he had laid "firm foundations" for peace and Japanese rearmament in talks with Premier Yoshida Shigeru. In Manila he will explain to the Philippines, Australia and New Zealand how Japan's rearmament is a good thing and nothing to worry about, as the Japanese are anti-communist now. Time goes on to explain how the Japanese Communist Party is melting away thanks to economic good times and relentless political persecution. (Which is good, because they are Communists.) Also, King Farouk is marrying a pretty girl. The Egyptian press approves! (It better!)
War in Asia
"Red Strike" and "Up to the Han" See-saw fighting continues in Korea, with the UN armoured advance pushing towards Seoul while a Chinese counterattack checked a Korean-led advance to the east.
"The Frankness of Friends" The ambassador's wife not being available, lecturing President Peron will be Edward Miller's job during his upcoming visit to Latin America. Colombia, which has already got the message, is sending a frigate and an infantry battalion to Korea. It is willing to increase this to an entire division if the United States springs for the equipment. Cuba, meanwhile, has offered to sell America more stuff, while in Venezuela, one intellectual is upset about all of this oil-boom bought prosperity, which will all end in tears any day now. In Canada, Defence Minister Brooke Claxton has promised to spend $5 billion on defence over the next three years, 10% of GNP. The army will be increased from its current strength of 65,000 to 115,000, with a brigade group going to Europe and complete re-equipment with American-style equipment,. The Air Force will be increased from 8 regular and 11 reserve squadrons to 40, with 11 squadrons and 6000 men slated for Western Europe. The Navy, currently at 10,000 men and 40 ships, will increase to 20,000 and 100 ships for antisubmarine and escort duty.
Retail inventories are still high. The Illinois Central gets a nice, long piece in honour of the stock paying its first common dividend since 1931. Merrill Lynch reports that its net income is up fivefold due to all the small investors (85,000!) coming into the brokerage to take advantage of the recent bull market.
"Opening the Door" For months, Monsanto has been trying to sell the AEC on an atomic power plant. The company thinks that it is the one to do it, after having run several projects for the Manhattan Project in WWII, and also its president developed tetraethyl lead, so he knows science. Sumner Pike of the AEC is not convinced that atomic power plants will ever be competitive, but Monsanto wants the chance to prove differently. In the bargain, it wants to develop some phosphate beds in a remote area of southeastern Idaho, which will need plenty of electrical power not currently in the offing, so the two would go together pretty naturally.
"Comeback for Mack" The Truck builder, Mack, has been feeling poorly of late, with sales well off 1947 peacetime peak and the company running at a loss, so Mack did the only logical thing, which was to hire a very expensive president, Edwin Dagobert Bransome (which is a real name) at $100,000/year to turn the company around. And, what do you know, in a year when everyone is making money, so is Mack! HIs secret? "When you find something that is wrong, fix it!" Meanwhile, the Maritime Administration hs just ordered 25 "Mariner" freighters that will be even bigger than Victories and "fast enough to outrun submerged submarines," (15knots, it you were wondering) and "will carry sub-spotting submarines." The promised cost of the class is $200 million, and the Kefauver Commission is looking into a weird case in which big time gamblers were trading steel stocks with each other and getting Cyrus Eaton involved, which is, frankly, all the evidence I need that something is fishy in the world of steel, even before I come across the Maritime Commission planning to spend it all on freighters that are too fast to run a profit and too slow to outrun a modern submarine.
"Noble Experiment" The Price Stabilisation Board is going to pre-emptively control meat slaughtering, holding it to just 450 major and 15000 local and state-licensed butchers, to prevent the meat from disappearing onto the black market, like in WWII. The meat packers are not impressed.
"Case of the Barren Mink" So the Department of Agriculture was advising chicken farmers to dose their broilers with the synthetic hormone, stilbestrol, to promote rapid growth. So as not to get any of it in humans, it was recommended that it be administered as pellets, injected under the skin of the pullet's neck. Once the chicken was beheaded, the pellet would be gone, and no human would be exposed. Unfortunately, mink farmers buy the heads as feed, and their minks were getting the same accelerated growth, resulting in their going into pelt before they had a chance to litter. This week, a bill was introduced into Congres to pay 30 affected ranchers up to $55,000 each. Talk is that if it comes to testimony before the House, rancher Henry Krueger will bring up the effects of stilbestrol on men. (It's not good!) Agriculture says that there is no evidence that stilbestrol is reaching human consumers; the Canadian government, less impressed, as banned its use.
"Rain of Iron" After studying the meteor crater near Canyon Diablo, Arizona, Dr. H. N. Nininger has concluded that it was hit by not one, but two meteorites landing close together, and that they were a central body of nickel iron, orbited by one of "slightly different composition" and accompanied by a loose swarm of smaller meteors. The result was a slightly complicated crash that did not, importantly, leave any worthwhile mass of iron in the crater, as it was all vapourised in the collision.
"Myxomatosis" Australia's latest weapon in its ongoing war against its rabbit infestation is an imported disease that is "harmless to humans and other animals," and which will hopefully kill off all the rabbits.
President George Cross of the University of Oklahoma ended his fundraising pitch to the state legislature by telling it that he wanted a university that the football team could be proud of. Meanwhile, Umber Lee of Southern Methodist University got a big grant from Joe L. Perkins and is using it to spruce up the place, so by all means lets give him, and SMU, a long piece before coming to the melancholy story of Margaret Slauch, who had been teaching English at NYU for 26 years. A long-time, self-admitted Marxist, she has decided to take a job at the University of Warsaw because America is no place for a Marxist, even if she keeps it to herself. (Time omits to mention one detail from the AP/New York Times story: She had been subpoenaed by HUAC.)
Art, Press, Radio and Television, People
In press news, Communism and foreigners are terrible because the draft UN treaty on freedom of the press has all sorts of exceptions. Hot Rod is a very successful magazine, and a colourful Texas panhandle newspaper editor changes the titles of syndicated columns that come down to him and then comments on them if he doesn't like them, which Time thinks is a swell bit of Americana, just like the latest bit in the Harvard Crimson making fun of Radcliffe. (Radcliffe girls are bluestockings. One of their patent "Radcliffe mother" letters in which she asked for the Harvard undergraduate body to be drafted because they are not manly enough for her daughter. Which then turned into national news because the rest of the country thinks that Harvard boys are effeminate, instead of that Radcliffe girls are, well, you know.Quite a story! And if that isn't enough, the "Mental Hygiene Society" of Westchester County, N.Y., is doing a study of advice columns for teenagers, to see if they read them, and if they're any good. It turns out they're not, so probably just as well if they don't listen.
The BBC has cut its staff of newscasters from 19 to 8 to get more "consistency of voice." It auditioned 100 announcers to find its 8 newscasters, auditioning only men because "people do not like momentous or serious events . . . read by female voices."
Jan Masaryk, Dr. William Ralph Inge, John Wanamaker, Louis Bamberger, Marshall Field, David May, Samuel Halle, Greta Garbo, Abraham Lincoln, Arnold Galiffa, Joseph Jacob Foss, Clarence Streit, Dorothy Kirsten, Louis Bromfield, Edna Ferber, Fannie Hurst, Kohn P. Marquand, P. G. Wodehouse, Edgar Rice Boroughs, Louise May Alcott, James Hilton, Dale Carnegie and the Prince Hans of Liechtenstein are in the page. People is actually pretty short of People this week. It is hugely extended by two lists, one of Gay Nineties department store magnates (in honour of Samuel Halle getting a museum exhibit in Cincinnati) and one of bourgeois authors banned or at least scolded in Czechoslovakia. That leaves a fairly short list of famous people being famous, along with two war heroes, and Prince Hans, who, unlike the more common run of European minor royalty, is actually a story, as he is caught returning to Liechtenstein with 1250 Swiss watches hidden in his luggage. He swears they were planted on him. Leopold III has had his fifth child by his second wife. Terry Moore and Glenn Davis are married, as is Grania Guinness, heiress of the (guess!) fortune, and the Shah of Iran. Eddy Duchin, Mother Marie Yvonne Aimee de Jesus, Robert Crooks Stanley, Fritz Thyssen and Mrs. Hetty Sylvia Ann Howland Green Wilks (which is a real name) have died.
The New Pictures
The Second Woman is a derivative movie that beats the usual quick imitation by being a copy of three different movies, including The Third Man, Rebecca, and Spellbound. Time thinks it is dumb. The Company We Keep has Lizbeth Scott being done wrong by Jane Greer and Dennis O'Keefe. Time thinks it is dumb, too. Vengeance Valley is a western, and pretty and Time likes Burt Lancaster, so that's okay. Frenchie? Dumb, and Shelley Winters can't save it. The Great Missouri Raid? Goes full tilt and has a great cast, but depraved because of the way it treats "glorified hoodlums" as heroes.
Aviation Week, 18 February 1951
News Digest reports that Columbia Air Coach System, which sells tickets on "large, irregular airlines," has been charged with fraudulent advertising and petty larceny. Oh. OH. The other shoe drops from all those stories of ticket mix-ups last year. Germany is going to be allowed to do research work on industrial gas turbine engines but not anything related to airplanes, in case WWII happens again and it turns out that new airplanes are more important than letting Germany have an army again.
Sidelights reports that the USAF is "shifting to heavier weapons" by replacing the six .50 machine guns on the F-89 with six 20mm cannons, that AC Spark Plug is getting a $4 million order related to the new Wasp Majors, that the Air Force's civilian work force is up to 186,000, that the Army is prodding th eAir Force to build planes that can fly tanks, that the USAF is opening its sixth air base in Britain, bringing its personnel there to 21,000, that the Air Force is calling up 80,000 volunteer reservists and that Air Force losses in Korea over the first six months totaled 223 planes. Fairchild's work on the NEPA atomic aircraft power plant is going ahead full steam.
Washington Roundup reports that the army expects "atom-headed short-ranged guided missiles" to be here for tactical support of front line troops in not too many years. They have the edge over tactical planes in that they can be used against nearby enemy formations and can attack in poor visibility with "considerable accuracy." We are talking about atom bombs with yields of thousands of kilotons of TNT going off over the front lines, right? I'm not just confused? On the road from here to t here, the AEC's "atomic artillery" experiments. USAF spending is up to over $6 billion a year, and PAA is going to launch an "all out campaign" to "eliminate" TWA from international airline flying. The Senate and the CAA are arguing about the cargo and feeder type testing programme. CAA is bound and determined that the Super DC-3 and B-45 will win the big Federal money to develop a new generation of same same, and the Senate thinks that they're nuts, because if that's the best you can do, why not buy British?
Using her amazing psychic powers, Ronnie channels the spirits of the Awakened Masters to tell you, they are not going to buy British. We close our feature by fearlessly predicting shortages of just about everything in the coming months.
Alexander McSurely, "Auto Makers Get More Engine Business" Time covers this in Business, and while Aviation Week has more details, I am not sure how important they are, except possibly to business boosters in places like Tonawanda (near Buffalo), which are getting the factories.
"Flying Saucers" Once again, Time has hit the story, the official Air Force admission that all those UFO sightings it claimed couldn't be explained, were actually cosmic ray balloons that were top secret for some reason. (to be fair, Aviation Week notices taht they carried instruments for "other studies.")
"Low Korea Air Losses" Low air losses in Korea (only 10 Air Force planes shot down in combat) show that the Communists aren't fighting very hard in the air, says the Air Force and Navy.
"61 Convair-Liner 340s Ordered Since Jan 1" You have to congratulate Convair on its stick-to-itness, anyway. The "340" was earlier reported as the "240." A Canberra is expected at Wright Field shortly, transferred in by an RAF pilot. Boeing and Bristol have signed an "assistance pact" invovling ramjets and "other defence products." The Office of Guided Missiles is reporting that it is spending gobs of money on guided missiles.
Irving Stone, "Mobilisation Stirs Up Wasp's Nest" Irving stops by the US Government plant in Souothington, Connecticut to find out about Pratt and Whitney's efforts to get it back up and running as an engine overhaul base and parts manufacturing plant. Tings are going very fast.
Aeronautical Engineering has an advertorial about the new Hiller ramjet helicopter prototype, the two-place Dragon. There's not much detail, and I'm not sure I believe in "rotary flamethrowers."
"More Briefs from IAS Sessions" visits Structure,s Flight Safety, Air Transport, and Electronics, which hears about standardisation, packing, antennae and frequency allocation.
"Titanium Structural Efficiency Studied" NACA is looking into this new "titanium" stuff that everyone is talking about. It is pretty good, especially at higher temperatures where other light alloys start to fail. Boeing is going to use the University of Washington's wind tunnel while it modernises its own. It has also progressed to static tests of the B-47.
Equipment has George L. Christian reporting on "EAL Curing Engine, Injection Ills," which is more from EAL's Miami operating base. At the bottom of the article, Aviation Week skips in an advertorial for Eclipse Machine's new electric fuel pump. Eclipse is a division of Bendix, if you were wondering how this one escaped New Products.
From the World Service comes "'Ink-Trace Navigator Used in Brabazon" That's one of those printing flight log gizmos with the rolling strip map, based on DECCA signals. Aviation Week rather petulantly points out that similar systems are under development "in this country."
New Aviation Products has a safety wheel cock from Pyrene, a telemetered motor from Servo-Tek that uses a "ring type Alnico V" field magnet of the metal saved in the new Philco televisions. Conax Sales of Buffalo has a thermocouple gland that is better than a bare thermocouple, while Morrill and Morrill have a high-precision "torque-checker," which is a hand instrument that measures torque, as opposed to a torquemeter which I have no idea what the hell those do and why they get inserted in the middle of jet turbine drive trains. Sorry, free associating there.
Delta has ordered some Super DC-3s, and Northwest wants us to know that its Stratocruisers are operating normally now with no unusual maintenance or utilisation problems of the kind it never had before. Well, maybe it used to have. But not now, and that's the point!
Aviation Week talked to an airline pilot who went to a very enlightening film on approach lighting the other day. It seems like there is something to all of this approach lighting talk.
"Saucers, Secrecy and Security" Aviation Week congratulates Look magazine, which is apparently where the flying saucer scoop appeared. And who is to blame for all of this? Why, President Truman, of course. If only Washington's chronic love of secrecy hadn't intervened, we would have got to the bottom of the whole flying saucer thing ages ago. But, instead, we had a giant, government-fostered hoax foisted upon us, because the government couldn't allow itself to put two and two together even after the Skyhook secrete was revealed in 1949. Bad Government! Good question!
Time, 26 February 1951
"Confidence and Strength" It turns out that all of that mobilisation-related activity actually worked. The United States will have 24 divisions ready to fight by the summer, has already doubled the strength of the Navy to 1052 ships, is making rapid progress on an atomic submarine, has mobilised the entire Air Force Reserve, is letting defence contracts at a rate of $5 billion a year, up from $3 billion, has passed the draft bill, and is "fighting effectively" in Korea (casualties: 8,154 dead, 30,569 wounded, 9,312 missing and prisoners). On the other hand, the labour members of the Wage Stabilisation Board resigned en masse last week, as part of a strategy of targeting the Board and getting a 12% wage increase ceiling instead of the 10% offered. Meanwhile, Time traces the expansion of the bureaucracy, and notes New York Police Commissioner Tom Murphy's refusal to take on the price control position at the Price Stabilisation Board because he is still upset that he didn't get a Federal judgeship for prosecuting the Hiss case.
"Time for a Rest" Everyone thinks that the President is tired and needs a rest. Time, The Economist, everyone, really. Why, when Herbert Hoover told the President that he was going to make another radio address, criticising the President's foreign policy, the President snapped back that it would be good for the nation to know where Hoover's crowd stood. So very rude! It sounds as though the President is going to take a rest, on his train trip out to California to see defence plants, he will do a long weekend in Arizona.
"A Question of Strategy" General Marshall briefed the press on our plans for the defence of Europe this week. The US, which already has two division in Germany plus additional support troops to the number of 100,000 men, will increase that by four more combat divisions with supporting troops to bring it up to 200,000, about the number Robert Taft is calling for. General Marshall deems this to be enough for perhaps a decade of tension to come, as long as the Congress doesn't restrict or ability to reinforce them. Our European allies will double their strength under arms from 2 million to 4 million.
"Belated Explanation" Three and a half years after the beginning of the UFO craze, Dr. Urner Liddel, chief nuclear physicist of the Office of Naval Research, offered an explanation, which is taht many of them were giant plastic balloons called "Skyhooks," sent aloft since 1947 to record cosmic rays. Being 100ft in diameter, and operating at 19 miles height, while scudding along under the jet stream, they have been pretty visible on occasion, but secrecy prevented the Air Force from discussing them. Much. Since this explanation was offered back in 1949, and the only really new thing is pictures of what the Skyhooks looked like.
The Kefauver Committee is looking into connections between underground kingpin Frank Costello and former New York mayor O'Dwyer, with plenty of other underworld figures flitting around the big show. Not at all related but not worth another header, the Labour movement is in trouble with two contempt of court fines being approved against the UMW and Railroad Brotherhoods, while rampant featherbedding at a Postal annex in Boston is a current scandal.
"Cutting the Fog" The Loyalty Review Board is having trouble finding all the Communists, and has asked the President to change the current standard of proof from "reasonable grounds if disloyalty" to "reasonable doubt that he was above suspicion," which would allow them to "cut through the fog" and fire more Communists. The President promised to refer it to his new Commission on Internal Security and Individual Rights, which is expected to approve the change immediately.
"High and Light" Time checks in with the teen drug problem, which is at one and the same time quite serious suddenly, and not that serious, in that teens usually use drugs for kicks, and not because of the psychological problems that afflict adult users, and are therefore easier to wean from their addictions, although there is a shortage of treatment programmes.
"Under and Out" Convict Joseph Holmes is on the loose in Baltimore, ten years into his 20 year sentence for burglary, after tunnelling 70ft from his cell under the penitentiary walls.
"The US Gets a Policy" Time summarises America's official, unstated world anticommunism policy at great length. I guess that since it is "unstated," we won't hear about it anywhere except Time, but that's okay because it's one of those "eyes glance off" bits of writing that doesn't seem to go anywhere. I think we're going to stand up to the Communists and peacefully coexist as long as they peacefully coexist and wait until they go away.
War in AsiaTime does its best to make the fighting seem dramatic, but what it boils down to is that the latest Chinese formation to the theatre, the Third Army, launched an attack down the mountainous centre of the peninsula, couldn't break through past UN strongpoints, and then was mopped up by armoured columns and air strikes, although commanders on the ground are getting tired of the lack of artillery support. By which is apparently meant that there isn't even more artillery, since there is a lot of artillery in Korea.
"More Words" Joseph Stalin gave an interview to Pravda in which he denied that Russia is mobilising for war, supported China's position in Korea, said that Russia wasn't going to start WWIII, and objected to Clement Attlee saying that Britain was rearming because Russia wasn't demobilising. What was he trying to say? Time probes beneath the surface to find the sinister Communist line, then checks in with the Foreign Office rebuttal. Also, Tito is warning that the Russians are about to invade him again. While he does this every year, it's for sure this time because Russia has been arming his neighbours and Stalin just has to be tempted by a "Balkan Korea," what with his thousands and thousands of tanks. It is also Mao's birthday. Since he hasn't been seen in public in Peking this week, Time helpfully speculates that he has either had a heart attack or is off to Moscow for secret meetings. Gerhard Eisler having to apologise for being a "conciliationist" shows that Communism is awful.
"Search for a Jujube" Yet another confidence motion fails in Britain, by the largest margin yet, as the Tories try to portray the Attlee government as rearming inefficiently. Churchill is roasted on the floor so badly that he starts squirming, later joking that he was searching his pockets for candy, which makes it all better. Also, this is the first, or "vesting" day of the new British Iron and Steel Corporation, with Steven Hardie at the head. The industry thinks that he is a class traitor and no-one wants to talk to him.
"Mount Ida to Jail" Time likes this story, which features "mustachioed" Constantine Kephaloyannis kidnapping Tassoula Petracogeorgi, spiriting her away to Mount Ida in Crete, and "marrying her in a lonely monastery." A court has found him guilty of rape, Tassoula says that she will return to him with her baby, and her father is pleased at the court sentence. I think I've left the romance out of it here, because I'm not super sure that there was romance. I think Greeks should be a bit embarrassed that the story is getting international play, since it is very stereotypical, but then what do you make of the next one, about a Paris contest to select the next generation of great French chefs? White hats, baguettes, Michelin stars. (Someone named Rene Laget won, so if he is famous in twenty years, my scorn was in vain!)
"Hitler's Advocate" Walter Huppenkothen, the SS agent who tortured the 1944 Hitler bomb plot conspirators, has been sentence to 3 1/2 years in prison for torture, because the court found him not guilty of murder, the convictions under which victims like Admiral Canaris were executed, being legal under the laws of Hitlerite Germany. In Israel, Ben-Gurion has orchestrated a lost vote of confidence so that he can go to the polls in the spring, and hopefully build a new coalition with an up-and-coming moderate Zionist party instead of parties representing Orthodox Jewish believers, with whom he has had to partner in the past.
"22 Divisions" Did you know that the Spanish army is the "biggest non-Communist fighting force in Europe today"? It says right here! It is a 422,000 man army of 22 divisions, with 23,000 men in a 40 ship navy and a 40,000 man air force. It is supposed that the Spanish can turn out 2 million men with a maximum effort, all poor peasants who will fight to the death for pork twice a day. Well, that certainly sounds promising in the age of atomic warfare! Time goes on to point out that the state arsenals can turn out "about a dozen 60mm and 105mm guns a month," and the less said about the navy the better. All of this for only 30% of the national budget. Time ends by pointing out that Spain is protected from the north by fortified mountains, which is great, but won't exactly do very much to defeat Communists sweeping across the Rhine! Time suggests give the not-at-all Fascists lots of guns so that they can fight, although it sounds like they need airfields and rail investment more.