(The Canaries have a great deal of volcanic tuft that makes it relatively easy to dig out a cave sanctuary or necropolis, something that old time Canarians loved to do.)
The Omicron Variant isn't just a rejected Michael Crichton manuscript. It's also eaten my weekend! But I did want to post something today, and given the rate of typos in just the paragraph I've already written, it sure better be low effort. Fortunately, there's an interesting question that has been weighing on me. It's even tangentially related to an epidemic of swabbed rapid tests! Have we caught up with the ancestral genetics of the island Atlantic now that everyone is asking 23andMe to do their genealogy homework for them? We haven't.
Well, it is a long trip.
The closest of the Macaronesia islands are the odd archipelago out, since we've no scientific groups currently championing an earlier settlement with really strong evidence. (Those northern European rodents could have got there on their own.) Compared with Portuguese, Madeirans have significantly higher Sub-Saharan ancestry and also a U6 mtDNA component which, not being identical to the one found on the Canaries and thus an indicator of post-Plantation gene flow from those islands, indicates a significant degree of Northwest African ancestry. On a related question, however, this study rejects a significant contribution on the part of Corsair raiders. Hey-ho!
A study from way back in 2003, sampling only mtDNA, as was the practice in those archaic days, found that Azoreans are mainly Portuguese with a significant northern European admixture. This raises the question of what Y-DNA studies might show. Sure enough, there are marked differences. "Haplogroup J* is the second most frequent in Azores (13.4%), but it is modestly representedin mainland Portugal (6.8%). The other non European haplogroups – N3 and E3a –, whichare prevalent in Asia and subSahara, respectively, have been found in Azores (0.6% and1.2%, respectively) but not in mainland Portugal (Neto et al., 2007)." The medical geneticists who published this study don't seem particularly interested in the historical implications of this, so let me do the hard work of googling to tell you that sampling in Oran, Algeria, returned 27.4% of the population with a J* Y-haplogroup (paternal) lineage.
The genetic history of the Caribbean is a bit much to get into on my current deadline of "Stop dawdling, you need bread for breakfast and lunch tomorrow!" but Puerto Rico is noteworthy for the particularly high Taino contribution to the current population.
Wikipedia: "Studies have shown that the racial ancestry mixture of the average Puerto Rican (regardless of racial self-identity) is about 64% European, 21% African, and 15% Native Taino, with European ancestry."
"Regardless of racial self-identity." Again, there is considerable skewing to European ancestry in male lineages.
The received population history of Newfoundland is that it was settled in the 1760s by roughly 20,000 Roman Catholic populations from southern Ireland and Protestants from western England, and had previously had small indigenous populations of Algonquin Micmacs, Beothuks and Innu. Protestant and Catholic populations did not intermarry, and the indigenous populations became extinct on the island of Newfoundland at an early date, with the Beothuks in particular having no close relatives elsewhere. A detailed genetic survey shows the Irish contribution has been overstated and that there is a significant indigenous admixture, especially considering that the small expected size of the indigenous population should have been so thoroughly dominated by an in-migration of tens of thousands of Europeans.
Modern Greenlanders are Inuit with some, mainly modern male, European ancestry, which is reflected in DNA studies. The predominance of European male lineages is interesting in that we are not currently invoking a genocidal event, although that Icelandic "superior reproductive success," which I have snidely implied is being assumed as due to superior Scandinavian reproductive fitness, is still on the table. Presumably we want to substitute social factors for Viking super-genes, and we're good to go.
No evidence for Paleo-Norse admixture is found, and evidence for Dorset admixture at low levels of gene flow is not definitive. The long term reader may recall my thesis that the Paleo-Norse were actually Dorset culture individuals undergoing ethnogenesis as people who didn't have to live on seal blubber. Drilling down a bit, eighty percent of Inuit Greenlanders have some European ancestry, but this varies greatly from region to region, with Tasiilaq, Qaanaaq (Thule), and small villages in southern Greenland reporting a smaller level of admixture, and this is used to reconstruct prehistoric migration routes and conclude that Inuit entered Greenland from the northwest and migrated down both west and east coasts, with East Greenlanders then migrating to south Greenland.
In conclusion, the number of demonstrably different historical cases in which European ancestry became prevalent in male lineages but not female across various Atlantic islands suggests soft-pedalling theories of overt sexual domination in favour of ones in which soft social factors are in play. My personally preferred hypothesis is that it might reflect sex sorting in immigration, with single male out-migrants more common and more likely to assimilate in their partner's communities. I suspect that this trend could be demonstrated by YDNA distributions of non-hegemonic migrant communities. It seems like the descendants of Lascar Londoners would be a good target to support the hypothesis by analogy, and I only refuse to pursue here at length because I am running out of time, having satisfied my own curiosity at some basic level.