It is also suspected that one of the levers might not lever, as the machine simply sits there when you pull that one? Who knows! The man who installed it came out from Buffalo for the job, and is currently fighting Global Communism at Ridgeway's headquarters in Tokyo, and will not be available for a return trip to repair the desk for the duration.
At this point I would just give up and get new subscriptions, but it is the principle of the thing, and also I find the letters are a bit faster to write this way, although they'd be even faster if all copies of The Economist spontaneously caught fire, here's hoping.
Your Loving Daughter,
Aviation Week, 1 October 1951
News Digest reports that the 22nd Bomb Wing, flying B-29s, has been transferred to Britain, the third European tour of duty for the wing. The "Korean battle score" is 72 MiGs versus 16 UN jets. Boeing-Wichita needs 3000 more workers for its high priority B-47 line. Lockheed is turning the Keflavik operating base it has been running since 1948 over to MATS.
Katherine Johnsen's Washington Roundup welcomes Robert Lovett as the new Defence Secretary, but not the new CNO, Admiral William Fechteler, said to be a conservative on air power. Lyndon Johnson's Senate Preparedness Committee is going to have a long, hard looko at the defence procurement programme, where it senses "drifting," disorganisation and profit-taking.
Alexander McSurely reports that "Shake-Up Coming in Materials Control," while McGraw-Hill looks at problems with control. Defence planners are reported to be about to return to the WWII system of unified controls ono materials, while McGraw-Hill points out that rivet makers weren't assigned enough aluminum for rivets, and what about that?
"Aluminum Supply Depends on Rain" We're going to catch up with this a bit more in The Economist, but I don't need to tell you about the drought up there, and as of the start of the month was cutting into hydroelectric supplies and reducing output at the Reynolds, Kaiser and Alcoa aluminum plants in Washington. (Also, the Douglas strike continues.)
"Flying Boat Designs Meet High Speed Goals" That's what it says here. There's a sketch diagram of the new Martin transonic, but the headline photo is of a triangular-winged Convair wind tunnel model. Most of the article is devoted to the combined hydrodynamic and aerodynamic testing regime that Convair has brought over from Britain and is using to test a number of supersonic flying boat planforms, and not just the eye-grabbing "delta" wing. I'd go into it in a bit more detail, but we here at the newsletter are very skeptical about flying boats, and in a two-for-the-price-of-one, a bit skeptical about how model tank tests transition over to flying prototypes.
The Economist, 6 October 1951
Having spoken for my great-grandchildren, it's on to what The Economist thinks, which is that once the Conservatives have won, they'll have to do something about the sterling crisis, and it would be nice if the Tories, or, really, any party, told us what. The Economist is still keen to get rid of full employment, price controls, rent control and food subsidies; and is unimpressed by what the Tories do promise, which is to denationalise most everything, including coal although not rails. It is appalled by Tory promises to build homes, (inflation!) and promises to reduce "waste and extravagance" as empty rhetoric. It chides the leadership of all parties for not talking about the "disinflationary policies" needed, I think because the obvious disinflationary policy is scaling back rearmament, and saying that out lout would be admitting that Bevan was right all along. Did you know that rent control "promotes consumption?" (And so inflation.) People will consume more home if they don't have to pay as much!
"Middle East Munich" The evacuation of Abadan was a "deeply humiliating episode and a grave defeat for British policy." On the other hand, if it had been done a few weeks ago, when The Economist recommended it, it would have been a "deliberate act of strength," and, anyway, it was the right thing to do, but humiliating because the Americans made us do it, but on the other hand Averill Harriman is a swell guy.
"More or Less Arms?" Speaking of cutting back on rearmament, it is now okay to recognise that Harriman --a very busy man!-- Jean Monnet and Sir Edwin Plowden have been talking about whether to do that. Or, to give them a nice, fresh fig leaf, increase it still further. General Eisenhower wants more guns. Continental Europeans, being a bunch of effeminate pansies, are allowed to say that they don't want to do that because they'll just get inflations, strikes and communism. Where does The Economist stand? "If all the arms that figure upon programmes extending to the year 1954 are ever all made and manned, then it is highly probably that the west will find itself grossly overarmed." Well. Well. Is Aneurin Bevan's apology in the mail? No. Because right now the Russians have more guns, and we need more guns right now. Which means "as much armament as can be turned out." We then dilate on just how many guns the American $65 billion will buy, which is a lot. Obviously because we are in the stage of making the guns, or even the machine tools to make the guns, we won't have the guns now, or soon, but "1952" is in reach. I'm not sure how making guns flat out into 1952 allows America to fall short of being "grossly underarmed" in 1954, but the question is Britain, where Mr. Gaitskell says that the £4500 million is written in stone. In conclusion, we should keep on until we find that we're overdoing it, and then we should go back and fix it so that we didn't overdo it in the first place. I guess.
The following leader says that it is time to heal the Italy-Jugoslavia breach by fixing the Trieste situation. Okay! The Economist toys with the idea that Gaspari's government will fall over the issue, that Italy will leave the Atlantic alliance and assert a nationalistic claim, resulting in war, with Italy expecting Britain to back Jugoslavia and therefore possibly going Fascist. Then it shakes its head and explains how the area will probably be divided between Italy and Jugoslavia.
Notes of the Week
At home, the crime rate is down, although the decline wasn't as great as the previous year, but sentences for young offenders are still too long, and getting longer. The retiring Chancellor of Cambridge says that Cambridge, and by extension British universities will need much more money over the next five years what with one thing and another. In the Empire, Uganda's cotton industry is to be reorganised because of inefficient management and discontent. Various measures to give more Africans control over the ginneries are to be implemented. What I think that means is that Africans grow the cotton, but the secondary processing is dominated by Indians, and the Africans don't like that.
The Economist scolds the Quakers for being dreamy-eyed pacifists, and Sir Ernest Gowers scolds civil servants for writing bad. The Economist of 1851 explains that racism is fine especially really horrible, rancid anti-Irish racism, because Anglo-Saxons are the best race.
Thomas Jones' life of Lloyd George is 330 pages about a living man, so the idea that it can be the "last word" about him in the first place, as the review wants, is a bit silly, and the review seems more interested in talking about Stanley Baldwin, which is safer because he's dead. Raymond Firth's Elements of Social Organisations sounds like a very worthy book indeed, although there's a bit of fun at the top of the review where the reviewer takes aim at all the unnamed commentators who are using anthropological terms to talk about business and such, these days. C. A. Cooke's Corporation, Trust and Company is also very worthy, which even the reviewer settles on as an opinion after gamely struggling to show why Cooke's treatment of the separate evolution of limited stock companies and corporations through 1862 is actually very relevant. Also worthy are Margaret Digby's Agricultural Cooperation in the Commonwealth and K. H. Campbell's Practical Cooperation in Asia and Africa, which are reviewed under the same header.
"One Voice for America" Oh, no, we don't have a long article for the Survey! Quick, make a blob about American foreign policy! What should it say? Well, everybody overseas is worried we're going to start World War III, so put it in that we won't. And write it at the end, because no-one's going to read the middle, and they'll forget the start!
"Gunning for McCarthy" Tailgunner Joe (yes, Uncle George explained!) was up for the libel/assault suit brought by Drew Pearson, the Senate Foreign Affairs Committee, which wanted details about his case against Philip Jessup, and the Ides Committee, which is considering moving forward with a motion to expel him from the Senate. The general thought is that this sort of thing won't work, as he will just be seen as a martyr in Wisconsin and the Republican party. The State Department is upset that young Lebanese are getting student visas to visit America and then marrying American citizens to stay here. The Pennsylvania Railroad is experimenting with vending machines to replace its attendants. But because it is The Economist it has to say "automatic machines" and labour over the offerings (sandwiches, ice cream, pastry and coffee) instead of just saying "vending machine."
The World Overseas
"The Crown Comes to Canada" The American branch popped up to Canada to see how the current royal tour is going. Pretty well! Then it stops to explain about how the monarchy works in Canada, mainly because it read an article in a worthy Canadian magazine about how the monarch should live in Canada part time, which is one of those things that is obviously a good idea and also completely unworkable, which are the things that The Economist loves. In conclusion, oh, heck, vote Tory.
The Economist shows off how much it knows about Germany while talking about German unity. Rhinelanders are Catholics! East Germans are Saxons are Protestants are Social Democrats! I learned so much! Then it is off to Russia where there is "A New 'Purge' of Russian History," consisting of an argument about whether the Russian army was good or bad (and, if so, how good or how bad) back in Napoleonic times, which just goes to show that communism is bad. Because they have arguments about history, you see. And because it is also increasingly nationalistic, which, no sarcasm, completely straight face, does sound like a problem to me.
The Business World
"Deep in the Red"
In conclusion, Something Must Be Done. The Economist is convinced that Labour won't, and the Tories say they won't, but whoever wins in October will have to come down from the "clouds of unrealism" very quickly after the election.
"Cut Off the Joint?" Britons are under a painfully small meat ration and are also not eating enough meat. Butchers are upset, and there is still a possibility of a meat shortage this winter. Homegrown meat tends to be slaughtered and sold immediately, and so is highly seasonal, and slaughtering rates were down this year over prewar, perhaps due to heavy culling early in the year due to falling milk prices. Imported meat is, well, see "Sterling area" at length. In conclusion, rationing isn't really solving the problem that exists right now, and Britain probably needs more chilled storage so that it can even out the supply of homegrown meat through the year.
"Mounting Defence Expenditure" So it turns out that spending more money on defence leads to more money being spent on defence? You see? This is why it was better when girls didn't have the vote. We don't understand these things! Expenditure on all supply services over the summer has been £831 million, compared with £635 million in the same period last year, or a 3`% increase, compared with a 19% increase in the first three months of the year. The total adjusted estimate for spending for the whole year is £3580 million, of which £2042 million has not yet been spent, which has led some poor, foolish babes in the wood to think that it won't all be spent, even though if you draw a line through the two numbers and extrapolate, all but £100 million will be spent, which is close enough to "all" to show that they are wrong. So far the spending has been paid for out of the "unexpected buoyancy of revenue" which keep on upsetting The Economist's predictions of imminent doom so regularly that I am beginning to doubt the "unexpected" part. The total budget deficit for the summer was £17 million, offset by a £14 million surplus in the first quarter and a surplus of £79 million last year. However, this is only "above line" expenditure, and "below line" sows an "overall" deficit of £293 million in the first six months of the year, well ahead of projections, mainly due to advances to local authorities.
Oh, and there is a new trade agreement with Germany and for international copper and zinc allocations, while the price of wool is up even though current consumption is down (notwithstanding the fact that it is up in August, which is clearly only a momentary change) and there's something wrong with the market and Australia and New Zealand will soon by so sorry they didn't come into the wool cartel. The Manchester Chamber of Commerce is against the purchase tax because it thinks that the utility scheme is unfair and that high-price cotton goods shouldn't be taxed, either. We also check in with the shoe trade, which is feeling a "certain slackness" of business.
"Oil in 1955" The forecast is that oilfields outside of the Soviet orbit will be producing 30 to 40% more than today, but this will not keep up with demand and American reliance on imports will continue to increase. American production will still be about half of the fre world's at 8 million barrels a day or so, compared with 6.5 million today and rest-of-the-world production of 4.5 million. Available oil in 1955 will be in the range of 15 million barrels, and 70 to 80% of the increase outside America will be in the Middle East. With American demand forecast at 10 million barrels a day by 1955, allowing the rest of the world anything like the same growth, points to an oil shortage.
British retail sales have been "stagnant" since July.
The Economist, 13 October 1951
"A Stand for Suez" The Economist explains what the Government must do.
"The Real Issues --I" Britain is undergoing inflation, which is driving the trade imbalance, which is bad, because the poor people keep buying things like food and housing. If only the poor could be made to pay more for these things, inflation would soon be under control. The wonderful thing about this is that it can be accomplished either by paying poor people lese or by letting the price of things they want to buy, go up. Or both! I could be both, if the politicians would just see reason!
"Atomic Diplomacy" The Russians are testing atom bombs in way of saying that they still have atom bombs, only now more of them. They say that they are just testing the use of atom bombs for moving mountains and diverting rivers, which seems awfully old-fashioned compared with American speculation about the usefulness of atom bombs in "tactically" blowing up Russian spearheads, bridgeheads, whereas in the old days it was just bridges in general, which is not a credible threat any more because of the MiG-15, I interpolate, as the editor wants to keep things at a plain of high generality or abstraction, and talks about diminishing air superiority instead. The Economist reminds us that the threat of war in Europe is in the "imminent future" when there won't be enough atom bombs to go around. Boo! So, anyway, the Russians actually sound a bit conciliatory with this announcement, so it would be a good idea for the foreign secretaries of all the western countries to sit down and think about what they would do if Stalin actually offered to back down a bit before we blew Europe into a radioactive wasteland to stop the advancing Red Army.
"Electoral Arithmetic" Labour is about to get trounced and lose between 116 and 168 seats to the Tories.
"Grapes from Thistles" So far it looks like this will be the War Mongering Election instead of the Full Employment Election expected. Labour points out that while "of course the Tories do not war," war seems to be their only answer to Mossadegh and now Nahas Pasha. To which the Conservatives answer that since "rearmament is no longer an issue; it is a fact," the voters should vote for the government that believes in it. Pusillanimity just increases the risk of war! On the other hand, there is some suggestion that the voters are more worried about "houses, jobs, wages and prices." A Note about "Politics in Church Schools" misses the roundup but is found later piled under a bunch of Jugoslavs.
Notes of the Week
A Note about elections in Trieste leads into one about Marshal Tito complaining about anti-Jugoslav "propaganda" in Western media. The Salford strike is over and may have been caused by Communist agitation. The United Kingdom and Norway are fighting over fishing rights off northern Norway, which goes to show that the British aren't above leaning on White people, too. The Norwegians want to assert extended territorial rights, which, it is noted, are now of general interest because "installations for winning oil from below the seabed" are marching out ever further into the sea. That doesn't seem like anything worth worrying about in practically Arctic waters, so I guess the point is that a principle is at stake.Assassination in Malaya" Henry Gurney, the High Commissioner of the Federation of Malaysia, has been killed in a Communist ambush. It is hoped that the shock of the event will bring a new resolve to end the emergency.
Local Notes cover odd bits of always-be-a-Britain. Buckinghamshire, which is near London, is getting a conservation plan. A parliamentary committee looking into the baking industry is trying to resolve a number of problems relating to when things are baked. Bakeries traditionally bake bread in the early morning to have fresh bread starting with breakfast. Cakes are baked during the day in the cooling ovens. The night shift gets a premium to work at night, and doesn't want to shift over to day work, but if this is balanced by a general wage increase and the day and night shifts become interchangeable, the night workers will have to learn how to bake cakes, which they can't do right now because they haven't been trained and there has been a decline in training in the industry due to the need for industrial production rates. So the solution would seem to be the Scottish-style apprenticeship that is spreading through the country. How odd. A problem with a solution!
"Socialist Chic" Miss Margaret Herbison chanced to claim that British utility dresses are selling in Paris, which goes to show that Labour is doing something right. The Economist makes fun.
From The Economist of 1851 comes a description of Disraeli's speech at Aylesbury, repeated at Slough, against Protection. This would seem to be a question of "protection" for one "producing class," which is wrong. "Protection" for "all producing classes" would be good, but is impractical, so better to not have it at all. I have no idea.
"The Air Force Flips the Balance" If the Air Force gets more money, everyone gets more money, including the AEC, which will spend a billion a year on atom bombs, especially "small atomic weapons" which can be fired at enemy troos in the field. This will allow the US to do without all those planes and troops. So more money leads to less money.
"Exploring the South" Senator Karl Mundt of South Dakota thinks that Republicans should explore the possibility of getting some votes below the Mason-Dixon Line, because plenty of voters down there want to "stop the encroachment of the all-inclusive centralised super-state" that is bringing Communism to America. All that remains is to give up on civil rights, he says. Unfortunately, liberal Republicans are against, and even States Right Democrats are not for.
"Rainmaking Comes to Stay" The current drought in the Pacific Northwest is bad for the region, but also bad for the country, as another article points out, since the drawing down of hydroelectric threatens the nation's aluminum supply. Fortunately, rain last week has eased the threat. It was natural rain, since, as you might have heard, it tends to rain on the Northwest in October. However, Irving Krick of the Water Resources Development Corporation was in town and talking about cloud-seeding and rainmaking, and he is said to have made 3" of rain over the Big Bend country and ruined the cherry harvest. His corporation now has 120 employees and has been credited with stopping a new dust bowl in the South-West, and, on the debit side, of causing the Kansas floods. He has forty contracts to seed clouds over 330 million acres, and is not the only one in the business, showing that rainmaking has come to stay.
Unless, you know, it doesn't actually work.
Shorter Notes has the President appointing Averill Harriman to a new job on the ECA, which was already noticed earlier, Congress giving a billion dollars to the Export-Import Bank to meet demands for purchases of essential materials, a tax cut in South Dakota, the move of the American centre of population 62 miles west but also south from Indiana to Illinois, and that Maryland has paid off the last of its Civil War debts.
"Iron Curtain Harvest" The harvest is in Eastern Europe. It was a bumper crop, which shows that Communism is bad because peasants don't like collectivisation.
"The Plight of Italy's Heavy Industries" It's because of the Communists and the government, with specific emphasis on the railcar and locomotive works at Reggiane, which have become a national scandal, right up there with the two-month long cabinet crisis in Israel which has ended with Ben Gurion's socialists forming another coalition with the religious bloc, which is less scandalous the second time around because what do you expect?
The rails are working on plans for a difficult winter, while it is clear that winter coal stocks won't hit the 18 million ton target. Britain might have managed to come through the lat two winters, it has been "living on its fat," and disaster is at hand! Which would be easily remedied by some economies during the fat months of summer.
"Control for Comets" You may remember from last year the discussion of how jetliners couldn't possibly comply with stacking limits, so that controls would have to let the jets come roaring right through. Landing trials at London Airport this week are establishing how that is going to work, and, incidentally, they are working out the details for high altitude weather reports, which the Comets will need. It is hard to get that information, and the airlines will probably have to pay for it.
Silver markets are "unusually agitated" this week. You don't say! It seems they are "due in part to international transactions in silver based on the cheap sterling," with some Dutch operators finding a way of, effectively, converting dollar to sterling at $2.45 to the £ by buying silver in London and selling it in New York. Whatever can it mean? Further articles show that the sterling trade imbalance is mainly due to the rest of the sterling area's dollar deficit, and that will change as soon as the South Africans manage to wiggle out of their gold sale agreement.
Aviation Week, 8 October 1951
BY CABLE comes, breathless, "First Report on Operation CIRRUS"! Eight NATO air forces got together and practice stopping the Red tide together. General Norstad says everything went great!
News Digest reports that Paul Shields has resigned as chairman of the board of Curtiss-Wright, while Thompson Products of Cleveland has bought the Antenna Research Lab of Columbus. General Quesada has retired. Again? SAI Marchetti has gone into liquidation a month after Breda closed its aviation department. Early commercial flights in the Ambassador report overheating.
Industry Observer reports that the sweptwing B-36 development is ready for roll out as soon as its J-57s are delivered. The new Air Force medium bomber competition is said to be rigged in favour of the Vickers Valiant, which might also be adapted for the Navy's new supercarrier. Foreign manufacturers are lined up to look at that cropduster that friend of the magazine Fred Weick has been working on, and which gets free coverage here, week in and week out. Convair's XC-99 keeps setting one informal record after another, Convair says. The latest, AU-1 version of the Corsair gets rid of that two-stage supercharger gizmo.
So, what prototypes did Anderton see? Apart from the Hawker P. 1067, "the unquestioned star of the show," he saw fighters, including the Supermarine 508, but not the Swift, as the prototype is out of service after a belly landing, the Hawker P. 1052, a swept-wing development of the Sea Hawk, the Sea Venom, the night fighter variant of the Meteor, but not the de Havilland DH 110, which just had its first flight last week, according to a Ministry announcement. Bombers included the first Valiant, the Short S. A. 4, which might be developed into a "terrific load carrier," three versions of the Canberra, and the Avro Shackleton. Engines on the static display included the Napier Nomad andHermes V and Mamba Marathon. The Avro 707 put on a thrilling display of low speed manoeuvre to show off the research plan side, while the Navy had the Wyvern and Gannet out. Americans clearly have a lot to learn about building interceptors, and Britain has a technical lead in transports, but the Navy has little to learn except that turboprops are the thing, with US Navy developments held back by "presumably, development troubles."
"New Hope for Standard Lighting" Upcoming international conferences will try to come up with an international standard again this year, which would seem mainly to involve smacking the USAF, USN and airline pilots' heads together. In other news, the air force has issued a contract to Slick Airways, the House Armed Services Committee has approved air force base expansions, there is a regional air pact between Australia and the Netherlands, the Air Force is studying air cargo damage, and BCPA made money this year. Strikes continue, National Airlines' board has beaten back a stockholder revolt, and Australian National Airlines has cancelled its order for 6 Vickers Viscounts after the government refused to approve kerosene fuel.
Aeronautical Engineering has Irving Stone, "Joint Group Tackles Engineer Shortage"
High school students entering engineering are down 20% compared with the prewar years, which means that there probably won't be enough engineers through 1960. The one thing that stands in the way of pushing up engineering graduates is that many students and graduates believe that there are not enough engineering jobs in "normal" periods, which force them out into non-technical jobs and reduces their income. This makes engineering an "uneconomical" proposal.
"'Beauty' Treatment for Stratojet's Skin" Boeing is having the B-47 in for aerodynamic cleaning up to bring its service performance closer to the claimed performance. Which is to say, it plans to do one as soon as 3M comes up with a "smoothing" treatment. Meanwhile, NACA is looking at "Porous Skin Cuts Stalling Speed," which is basically just a story about boundary layer control, but with "porous" metal skins (bronze/cloth/brass, subject to suction from a turbosupercharger compressor) rather than slots. The whole idea sounds beyond impractical, but NACA is looking into whether it might be made practical by close enough consideration of weather, dirt, insects, "etc."
NACA Reports further explores the limits of the impractical with "A Survey of Methods of Determining Stability Parameters" by measuring them "dynamically," by the dynamic Harry Greenberg. It's not dynamic, though. It's maths. William Letko has looked into the effect of vertical tail area on the tendency of a model with a 45 degree wing to yaw all over the place. You need to fix this before I fly in your superswept airliner, Bill! Frank Diederich has laboured long and hard over "Charts and Tables" for calculating the "Downwash" of arbitrary wing forms. They're extensive! But not really arbirary. You're on your own with a 45 degree sweep, for example. A. Ethelda McArver is a girl, so she's been assigned the no-hope flying boat beat, and is looking at landing a model with "zero degree angle of dead rise." Naval architects will know what she's talking about! Yung-Huai Kuo is looking at two-dimensional flow over wing plans at transonic speeds. G. A. Bugaenko has wrangled gas flow over "an infinite cascade" by using some Russian guy's math. This is commie sciene, but we translated it for you. Eric Reissner used some free, Western math to do something similar. (Subsonic flow over oscillating airfoils, only.) S. S. Shu looked at the "curved stationary shock" of "two-dimensional flow."
Less math, more test pilot daring do, no NACA as Northrop flies an F-89s Scorpion at high speed to test what happens after the canopy is blown. Pilot survived the first, pilot dummy in the second, higher speed test, was damaged, and a passenger in the third, highest speed test, was strapped in enough to come out okay, while the autopilot was fine.
Equipment has George L. Christian checking in with how Chicago and Southern Air Lines handles maintenance. With a "Specialist for Each Plane Type"! How does that work with radios or tires? It doesn't, so he goes to those shops and hears what they've been doing, and the answer is this and that.
New Aviation Products has the star, "plane air valve" of a "diversified line of valves" from Adel, a pressure fuel cap from Gabb Special Products, the "Livermore Analizer," which measures the torque from various shop tools, and a "subminiature selenium rectifier" from Electric Devices, Incorporated under the "Minisel" brand name. Flight Refuelling's new tube connector fittings "cut weight."
What's New is reading William Glenn Cunningham's The Aircraft Industry: A Study in Industrial Location, the CAA's latest manual, on flight instruction, and a catalogue from Solar Aircraft.
Robert H. Wood's Editorial explains why air power costs so much without talking about General Horace Shepard's pension or college tuition. Wood is very happy with Pan Am's "blunt warning" that it will start regular, low-cost North Atlantic coach service in April, whether other members of IATA are ready or not. Aviation Week's part-time sales manager is going full time at Business Week effective 1 October, and Aviation Week hopes to have a replacement soon.