Saturday, January 22, 2022

Postblogging Technology, October 1951, I: Battle is Joined

R_. C_.,
Vancouver, Canada

Dear Father:

It appears that I was overconfident in telling you that I would have my magazines in hand this month. The public health officer in Palo Alto who diverted my subscriptions is isolated at home with a baffling mystery disease that keeps him out of the sunshine, and, whilst doing a fine job from his home office I am sure, the necessary information is held at his office in a brand new file-desk that supposedly makes it easy to get at this or that record with a spin of a dial and a pull of a lever. It is also suspected that one of the levers might not lever, as the machine simply sits there when you pull that one? Who knows! The man who installed it came out from Buffalo for the job, and is currently fighting Global Communism at Ridgeway's headquarters in Tokyo, and will not be available for a return trip to repair the desk for the duration. 

At this point I would just give up and get new subscriptions, but it is the principle of the thing, and also I find the letters are a bit faster to write this way, although they'd be even faster if all copies of The Economist spontaneously caught fire, here's hoping.

Your Loving Daughter,


Aviation Week, 1 October 1951

News Digest reports that the 22nd Bomb Wing, flying B-29s, has been transferred to Britain, the third European tour of duty for the wing. The "Korean battle score" is 72 MiGs versus 16 UN jets. Boeing-Wichita needs 3000 more workers for its high priority B-47 line. Lockheed is turning the Keflavik operating base it has been running since 1948 over to MATS. 

Industry Observer reports that the "temperamental and very high-speed Chance Vought F7U" will be in squadron service soon after the most extensive "bug" extermination service yet. Powered by Westinghouse J-46s, it is the Navy's first transonic jet. McDonnell is using the progress it has made with helicopter tip ramjets to design "short" afterburners for the new generation Allison and GE jet engines going into its Banshee. The Navy is demoting the Grumman Panthers and McDonnell Banshees to second-line status in 1952, as they are no match for the MiG-15. Packard will be able to make all the necessary forgings for its J-47 at its Detroit  plant, thanks to new forging capacity. Continental's licensed Turbomeca small turbine engines are the first practical small turbines for commercial and other uses in America, sorry Boeing. Northwest is "restudying" its proposal to put Sperry engine analysers in its Stratocruiser fleet because Bendix has suggested that it is open to a better offer. Bristol says that its Proteus-powered turboprop 50--92 passenger transport will carry 25,000lbs at 350mph for 3100 miles at 31,000ft and it is the bee's knees, the British plane for the trans-Atlantic route. Pratt and Whitney's T-34 turboprop has been uprated from 6000hp to 5700hp. Now all they have to do is actually build it!

Katherine Johnsen's Washington Roundup welcomes Robert Lovett as the new Defence Secretary, but not the new CNO, Admiral William Fechteler, said to be a conservative on air power. Lyndon Johnson's Senate Preparedness Committee is going to have a long, hard looko at the defence procurement programme, where it senses "drifting," disorganisation and profit-taking.  

Alexander McSurely reports that "Shake-Up Coming in Materials Control," while McGraw-Hill looks at problems with control. Defence planners are reported to be about to return to the WWII system of unified controls ono materials, while McGraw-Hill points out that rivet makers weren't assigned enough aluminum for rivets, and what about that?

"Missiles Future Stirs Congress" Congress is very excited about the B-61 missile, leading "Defence spokesman" to find themselves in the position of pouring cold water on enthusiastic representatives. Yes, America should have an atomic Army, Navy and Air Force, but right now it actually doesn't have service-tested atomic missiles, atomic-powered aircraft and submarines, or atomic artillery. The first Army atomic missile, the Douglas Corporal, is going to enter service soon, and will have a range of 60 miles. 

"Aluminum Supply Depends on Rain" We're going to catch up with this a bit more in The Economist, but I don't need to tell you about the drought up there, and as of the start of the month was cutting into hydroelectric supplies and reducing output at the Reynolds, Kaiser and Alcoa aluminum plants in Washington. (Also, the Douglas strike continues.)

The Air Force is scrambling to explain the abrupt resignation of Brigadier General Horace Shepard, who left the Air Force for a vice-presidency of Thompson Products, the Air Force explains, was not a real career officer with a good pension, and he was 38, so ripe for retirement, and he had to pay for his own college tuition, so something something. The Air Force might have been clearer, except Shepard has already said that his work at Thompson Products was "more important" than his Air Force work, where he was Director of Procurement and Production Engineering. The Air Force says that Shepard is not in violation of Article 30-30 that prevents government employees from going off to work for a company they just awarded a contract, and Congress has all the details in a secret letter. 

The CAA is cracking down on air shows after the Flagler tragedy, the military is shifting over to heptane as its test fuel over industry objections, SBAC is in the country to tour factories, with an unnamed SBAC official kindly providing the money quote that American airlines will soon be lining up to buy the Comet. 

"Flying Boat Designs Meet High Speed Goals" That's what it says here. There's a sketch diagram of the new Martin transonic, but the headline photo is of a triangular-winged Convair wind tunnel model. Most of the article is devoted to the combined hydrodynamic and aerodynamic testing regime that Convair has brought over from Britain and is using to test a number of supersonic flying boat planforms, and not just the eye-grabbing "delta" wing. I'd go into it in a bit more detail, but we here at the newsletter are very skeptical about flying boats, and in a two-for-the-price-of-one, a bit skeptical about how model tank tests transition over to flying prototypes. 

"Wave Maker" Berkshire Laboratories of Concord, Massachusetts, had its new "Labmarker," a
waveshaping" device for "producing time marks in cathode-ray oscillography. It transforms sinusoidal waves into time pulses, which comment occasioned a fascinating explanation of the mathematics from my beloved. I am kidding because it was not fascinating, but it is clearly important to patent laws in fields that people actually care about, like recorded music and telephones. Not that the advertorial article mentions the math. (Fourier transformations, if you were wondering.)

NACA Reports is on the battlefield of the boring, fighting the good fight for tedium! E. F. Kavanaugh and W. D. Drinkwater, doomed by his name, have explored the torsional strength of stiffened D-tubes and have a chart! Robert Johnson has rounded up the usual suspects to investigate friction on oxide films on boundary-lubricated steel surfaces (with stearic solutions) at high velocities. I think this means they looked at a pat of butter on a hot griddle? 

Equipment has George L. Christian reporting on "TWA Bustling with 4-0-4 Plans" Forget the 2-0-2. It it belongs on the ash heap of history along with wide pant legs and permanent wave bangs! (That is, in 1948.) 
Pan Am has standardised its Stratocruiser props so they won't run away and take the engine with them quite as much. Specifically, it is shifting from Curtiss Electrics (I think I see the problem here!) to Hamilton Standard. Meanwhile, NWA is going to put an engine analyzer from Sperry in same. No, wait, Bendix! It is hoped that having an engine analyser will cut flight cancellations by a third! That's a lot of flight cancellations!

New Aviation Products has an "autopilot control," which sounds strange but is  just an automatic altitude control from Lear, designed for use with the L-2 autopilot, which maintains a constant barometric altitude.  It is very simple, with just a pressure bellows, electromagnetic clutch and pick-off differential transformer, no gears. (Although the clutch has moving parts, notwithstanding being "electromagnetic.") Thomson Industries (different company? "P" optional?) has a new nylon (coated) bearing that is more slippery than any steel surface lubricated with stearic solutions. Aveco's airborn case valve is . .  . a valve. A. W. Haydon's "tube protector" is a self-resetting circuit breaker for cathode tubes. Ford Instruments is proud of its low-inertia servo motors, which save space by eliminating the need for transformers. 

CAB is taking another look at nonskeds after Congress told it to, but is still not backing off from ordering Air Transport Associates out of business for running an effectively scheduled Seattle-Anchorage service. It has also postponed the DC-3's retirement, since airlines won't stop flying them. BEA will only order turbine from now on, too bad, Airspeed. United is the latest to launch a 3 class West Coast service (steerage, standard and luxury).

Captain R. C. Robson's Cockpit Viewpoint branches out from airline pilot work to talk about air support. As a former liaison pilot, he points out that liaison planes are good. Well, fine, but how much do we have to worry about the design of the best next generation liaison plane when helicopters are treading on their heels? What's New loved Johns Hopkins' new Handbook of Supersonic Aerodynamics, but can't really review it without spoiling the ending, because volume 3 isn't ready yet.  That kind of laziness did not befall SKF industries as it worked on its 270 page masterpiece, Ball and Roller Ball Engineering. You know who is getting this year's Nobel for literature, especially after the success ofo the "prequel," Air Fans. 

Robert H. Wood's Editorial thinks that planes are too loud, is glad that the CAB is looking at nonskeds again, and notes that former Aviation Week Air Service Command publicity man, Byron C. Dempsey, has joined its staff as Air Material Command correspondent. 

The Economist, 6 October 1951


"No Signposts" A weekly newsmagazine can't exactly arrange to come out on the day that, say, an election is called, so I am not going to complain that we are dumped into the middle of the British general election, especially one that has been expected for over a month, but I feel as though someone reading this in a hundred years, perhaps because they've been sentenced to write The Economist of 1951, for who knows what awful crime, might get a bit confused. 

Having spoken for my great-grandchildren, it's on to what The Economist thinks, which is that once the Conservatives have won, they'll have to do something about the sterling crisis, and it would be nice if the Tories, or, really, any party, told us what.  The Economist is still keen to get rid of full employment, price controls, rent control and food subsidies; and is unimpressed by what the Tories do promise, which is to denationalise most everything, including coal although not rails. It is appalled by Tory promises to build homes, (inflation!) and promises to reduce "waste and extravagance" as empty rhetoric.  It chides the leadership of all parties for not talking about the "disinflationary policies" needed, I think because the obvious disinflationary policy is scaling back rearmament, and saying that out lout would be admitting that Bevan was right all along. Did you know that rent control "promotes consumption?" (And so inflation.) People will consume more home if they don't have to pay as much!

"Middle East Munich" The evacuation of Abadan was a "deeply humiliating episode and a grave defeat for British policy." On the other hand, if it  had been done a few weeks ago, when The Economist recommended it, it would have been a "deliberate act of strength," and, anyway, it was the right thing to do, but humiliating because the Americans made us do it, but on the other hand Averill Harriman is a swell guy.


"More or Less Arms?" Speaking of cutting back on rearmament, it is now okay to recognise that Harriman --a very busy man!-- Jean Monnet and Sir Edwin Plowden have been talking about whether to do that. Or, to give them a nice, fresh fig leaf, increase it still further. General Eisenhower wants more guns. Continental Europeans, being a bunch of effeminate pansies, are allowed to say that they don't want to do that because they'll just get inflations, strikes and communism. Where does The Economist stand? "If all the arms that figure upon programmes extending to the year 1954 are ever all  made and manned, then it is highly probably that the west will find itself grossly overarmed." Well. Well. Is Aneurin Bevan's apology in the mail? No. Because right now the Russians have more guns, and we need more guns right now. Which means "as much armament as can be turned out." We then dilate on just how many guns the American $65 billion will buy, which is a lot. Obviously because we are in the stage of making the guns, or even the machine tools to make the guns, we won't have the guns now, or soon, but "1952" is in reach. I'm not sure how making guns flat out into 1952 allows America to fall short of being "grossly underarmed" in 1954, but the question is Britain, where Mr. Gaitskell says that the £4500 million is written in stone. In conclusion, we should keep on until we find that we're overdoing it, and then we should go back and fix it so that we didn't overdo it in the first place. I guess. 

"Ready for Battle" The parties are organising for the election because there's an election on. Conservatives believe they can take a "moderate number of Labour seats" in each area while holding on to their own, enough to give a modest majority. Their main weapon seems to be the postal vote, which heavily favoured Conservatives in the last election. Liberals are allegedly pretending that they will somehow not be a factor in the election as their votes will "cancel out." (The Conservatives have put forward a list of Liberal candidates they are not opposing just to make it clear that Liberals can vote Tory and not worry about the fate of the Liberal caucus.) Labour is pessimistic because the government is going to the polls tired, and because the Gallup polls are showing  a Conservative lead. Attlee will campaign like Truman, so the hope is that the polls will turn out like Truman's. 

The following leader says that it is time to heal the Italy-Jugoslavia breach by fixing the Trieste situation. Okay! The Economist toys with the idea that Gaspari's government will fall over the issue, that Italy will leave the Atlantic alliance and assert a nationalistic claim, resulting in war, with Italy expecting Britain to back Jugoslavia and therefore possibly going Fascist. Then it shakes its head and explains how the area will probably be divided between Italy and Jugoslavia. 

Notes of the Week

We lead off with British general election news. I am sure that my great-grandchildren will be fascinated to hear that Attlee sounded tired at the Scarborough rally, that people don't expect Bevan to split the Labour vote, and that Morrison is in trouble for implying that the Tories will start a if they are returned to power. Churchill apparently doesn't know that "The days of Palmerston are over." The Economist is very upset with the talk about protecting farmers in the Conservative election manifesto, but reluctantly admits that the Festival of Britain was fun, after all.


Then it is off to tour the world, visiting Korea to establish that the idea of a peace on the 38th Parallel is perfectly compatible with the UN holding on to some territory north of the 38th Parallel because it is easier to defend that line. Fine, unless it is also easier to attack from that line! In Germany, Adenauer's government has told the Nazis to go back to the closet they came from by officially acknowledging that Germany did massacre European Jewry, and telling off the German Soldier's League for claiming that the 20 July plotters were traitors. Talks continue on the subject of a Germany-wide election. Observers disagree as to whether the claimed foiled coup attempt in Argentina actually was a coup attempt, and whether it is better for Peron to have Eva sick and unable to muster support, or healthy and pushing her radical agenda. Greece still doesn't have a government.   Venezuela is a nice place, what with all of the oil, and a good example of an expanding  market, and will continue to be as long as it keeps a respectful tongue in its mouth when it talks to Mr. Rockefeller. The Chinese Communists are persecuting the Chinese Christian churches. Can't imagine why, and neither can The Economist. (Except for the Catholics. The Economist can see the point, there. It's not that they're sinister, but they sure are superstitious!)

At home, the crime rate is down, although the decline wasn't as great as the previous year, but sentences for young offenders are still too long, and getting longer. The retiring Chancellor of Cambridge says that Cambridge, and by extension British universities will need much more money over the next five years what with one thing and another. In the Empire, Uganda's cotton industry is to be reorganised because of inefficient management and discontent. Various measures to give more Africans control over the ginneries are to be implemented. What I think that means is that Africans grow the cotton, but the secondary processing is dominated by Indians, and the Africans don't like that.

The Economist scolds the Quakers for being dreamy-eyed pacifists, and Sir Ernest Gowers scolds civil servants for writing bad. The Economist of 1851 explains that racism is fine especially really horrible, rancid anti-Irish racism, because Anglo-Saxons are the best race.


W. N. Lear of Cheshire explains why Liberals should vote Conservatives. (It's because socialism is bad. I know you were wondering!) L. A. Jackson and E. Victor Morgan explain that it is not so much that socialism is bad as that Liberal votes are free to vote Liberal because they are Liberals so voting Liberal and causing a disastrous Tory government won't be their fault because they are Liberals. This is what I get for trying to read this column before breakfast. I'd reread the letter to see if it started making sense, but I have to leave for school in an hour!  S. H. Frowein, a German in Leeds, explains why British people shouldn't pay attention to  some other German. A. C. Richards explains why life insurance policies (even with a profit share) are not good protection against inflation. Peter Ibbotson of the National Association of Labour Teachers finds the proposed new College of Technology an inadequate half measure, while Paul Hutch of Chicago write s to explain about the Black Sox scandal. 


Thomas Jones' life of Lloyd George is 330 pages about a living man, so the idea that it can be the "last word" about him in the first place, as the review wants, is a bit silly, and the review seems more interested in talking about Stanley Baldwin, which is safer because he's dead.  Raymond Firth's Elements of Social Organisations sounds like a very worthy book indeed, although there's a bit of fun at the top of the review where the reviewer takes aim at all the unnamed commentators who are using anthropological terms to talk about business and such, these days. C. A. Cooke's Corporation, Trust and Company is also very worthy, which even the reviewer settles on as an opinion after gamely struggling to show why Cooke's treatment of the separate evolution of limited stock companies and corporations through 1862 is actually very relevant. Also worthy are Margaret Digby's Agricultural Cooperation in the Commonwealth and K. H. Campbell's Practical Cooperation in Asia and Africa, which are reviewed under the same header.

American Survey

"One Voice for America" Oh, no, we don't have a long article for the Survey! Quick, make a blob about American foreign policy! What should it say? Well, everybody overseas is worried we're going to start World War III, so put it in that we won't. And write it at the end, because no-one's going to read the middle, and they'll forget the start!

"Minnesota's Primary" I don't know if you've heard, but there's an American presidential election next year, and someone who could be running in it is Harold Stassen, and he lives in one of those states up there around the Great Lakes. Maybe Minnesota. That would make sense! And he has to win the (Ronnie checks Who's Who) the Republican primary. Yes, the Republican primary. If he doesn't, he will be a loser and we will talk about someone else. Like Eisenhower and Taft, to be honest. In the meantime, Minnesota turns out to have state politics, and explaining those should be good for a couple of columns. 

American Notes

"Reprieve for Economic Aid" The Senate has decided not to cut economic aid for Europe because General Eisenhower told them not to. The Senate is also squabbling over the Administration's request for tax increases, while on the other side of things the President has responded to politicians criticising the RFC while working for companies with RFC loans by proposing that all politicians and civil servants make public all of their sources of income. People who think that that is a terrible idea include The Economist. Per same, we are now at "the end of the beginning" of defence mobilisation and it is now being said that America will manage the mobilisation without further cuts in consumer good production due to the increasing gross national product, now at $350 billion. 

"Gunning for McCarthy"  Tailgunner Joe (yes, Uncle George explained!) was up for the libel/assault suit brought by Drew Pearson, the Senate Foreign Affairs Committee, which wanted details about his case against Philip Jessup, and the Ides Committee, which is considering moving forward with a motion to expel him from the Senate. The general thought is that this sort of thing won't work, as he will just be seen as a martyr in Wisconsin and the Republican party. The State Department is upset that young Lebanese are getting student visas to visit America and then marrying American citizens to stay  here. The Pennsylvania Railroad is experimenting with vending machines to replace its attendants. But because it is The Economist it has to say "automatic machines" and labour over the offerings (sandwiches, ice cream, pastry and coffee) instead of just saying "vending machine."

The World Overseas

"The Crown Comes to Canada" The American branch popped up to Canada to see how the current royal tour is going. Pretty well! Then it stops to explain about how the monarchy works in Canada, mainly because it read an article in a worthy Canadian magazine about how the monarch should live in Canada part time, which is one of those things that is obviously a good idea and also completely unworkable, which are the things that The Economist loves. In conclusion, oh, heck, vote Tory.

"Exercise COUNTERTHRUST" The former British occupation force in Germany is now the British Army of the Rhine (BAOR is part of NATO, which is an ACRONYM!) Eleventh Armoured Division has joined 7th Division, as otherwise it would be an embarrassingly small army, and together they had an exercise, and here is the press coverage! Like in any good war movie, there were some "ethnics" along to provide colour, in this case American, Belgian, Netherlands and Norwegian brigades. The Americans did okay, while the Europeans were all silly, incompetent Europeans, see also The Economist of 1851 this number. Various British junior officers didn't take it very seriously, so we yell at them some. 

The Economist shows off how much it knows about Germany while talking about German unity. Rhinelanders are Catholics! East Germans are Saxons are Protestants are Social Democrats! I learned so much! Then it is off to Russia where there is "A New 'Purge' of Russian History," consisting of an argument about whether the Russian army was good or bad (and, if so, how good or how bad) back in Napoleonic times, which just goes to show that communism is bad. Because they have arguments about history, you see. And because it is also increasingly nationalistic, which, no sarcasm, completely straight face, does sound like a problem to me. 

"Towards a West Indian Dominion?" The Economist talks at length about something that could really happen if various bien pensant get their way.  No-one is exactly sure how it work economically, and the most valuable aspect of it, according to The Economist, is that some areas are "overpopulated to an appalling extent" and need "outlets for their population," which is a dumb argument even by the standards of The Economist talking about the coloured folk. I mean, what is stopping them from emigrating now apart from the reluctance of the "outlet" colonies, and how are they to be persuaded to join a Federation that will make it impossible for them to stem "outletting" by "appalling" masses? 

The Business World

"Deep in the Red"


The dollar deficit so far in 1951 is the highest since the "year of catastrophe and postwar abnormalities, 1947," and even higher than the months before devaluation in 1949. This probably means that it is "partly the result of special and probably non-recurring influences," including "capital movements," which is a very vague and mush-mouthed way of putting it since calling things what they are would annoy all the subscribers who have been socking their money away in North America beginning with the appreciation rumours and accelerating ever since it started looking like inflation was coming back. Part of it, however, is spending about $300 million a year replacing Persian oil, and that will keep on recurring until the Abidjan crisis is resolved. Since the problem is the whole Sterling area's balance of trade, special measures would have to be cleared with the entire area. That is, no devaluation for now. It would be better if something were to be done in Britain. Coincidentally, how about that rearmament? 

In conclusion, Something Must Be Done. The Economist is convinced that Labour won't, and the Tories say they won't, but whoever wins in October will have to come down from the "clouds of unrealism" very quickly after the election. 

"Cut Off the Joint?" Britons are under a painfully small meat ration and are also not eating enough meat. Butchers are upset, and there is still a possibility of a meat shortage this winter. Homegrown meat tends to be slaughtered and sold immediately, and so is highly seasonal, and slaughtering rates were down this year over prewar, perhaps due to heavy culling early in the year due to falling milk prices. Imported meat is, well, see "Sterling area" at length. In conclusion, rationing isn't really solving the problem that exists right now, and Britain probably needs more chilled storage so that it can even out the supply of homegrown meat through the year. 

Business Notes

We check in with the Conservative election manifesto to see whether the Tories will finally lift the burden under which risk capital toils, and let it rest by the side of the road. It turns out, not! The Tories don't dare do nothing about the rise in corporate profits under rearmament, even though that rise is a good thing and nothing should be done about it. It sounds as though they will levy an excess profits tax, and that will, of course, be terrible. 

"Mounting Defence Expenditure"  So it turns out that spending more  money on defence leads to more money being spent on defence? You see? This is why it was better when girls didn't have the vote. We don't understand these things! Expenditure on all supply services over the summer has been £831 million, compared with £635 million in the same period last year, or a 3`% increase, compared with a 19% increase in the first three months of the year. The total adjusted estimate for spending for the whole year is £3580 million, of which £2042 million has not yet been spent, which has led some poor, foolish babes in the wood to think that it won't all be spent, even though if you draw a line through the two numbers and extrapolate, all but £100 million will be spent, which is close enough to "all" to show that they are wrong. So far the spending has been paid for out of the "unexpected buoyancy of revenue" which keep on upsetting  The Economist's predictions of imminent doom so regularly that I am beginning to doubt the "unexpected" part. The total budget deficit for the summer was £17 million, offset by a £14 million surplus in the first quarter and a surplus of £79 million last year. However, this is only "above line" expenditure, and "below line" sows an "overall" deficit of £293 million in the first six months of the year, well ahead of projections, mainly due to advances to local authorities. 

"IMF Concedes Defeat" The IMF has given up fighting "premium" sales of gold. South Africa, in particular, has been selling up to 40% of its gold under affidavits asserting that it is for industrial use and thus subject to premium prices. Everyone has been hoarding gold, reducing the IMF to a policy that gold should only be hoarded officially, and not by private buyers. That would require official buyers to resell at the official price and flood the market until hoarders give up on premium purchases, and that would require suppliers to sell a much larger share of their gold at the official price than they are now doing. The IMF's defeat means that the reverse is true, and it probably puts pressure on the British-South African gold purchase agreement. Another symptom of strain is deduced from the progress of British banking deposits, although how I am  unclear since at the beginning of the article they were increasing, and at the bottom they were decreasing, which shows that I don't understand the jargon, although it is at least clearer than the bad old days of "let's hang Hugh Dalton from the old apple tree."

Oh, and there is a new trade agreement with Germany and for international copper and zinc allocations, while the price of wool is up even though current consumption is down (notwithstanding the fact that it is up in August, which is clearly only a momentary change) and there's something wrong with the market and Australia and New Zealand will soon by so sorry they didn't come into the wool cartel.  The Manchester Chamber of Commerce is against the purchase tax because it thinks that the utility scheme is unfair and that high-price cotton goods shouldn't be taxed, either. We also check in with the shoe trade, which is feeling a "certain slackness" of business. 

"Research Race for Titanium" Titanium is the latest wonder metal, and the discovery of the Allard Lake deposit of ilmenite has led to the construction of a Kennecott Copper/New Jersey Zinc smelter, costing $30 million, which will produce 250,000t of titanium dioxide slag annually and 175,000t of pig iron. Titanium dioxide has lots of uses and is being substituted for zinc oxide due to the current shortage of same, but of course we are interested in titanium metal, and research continues on cheap methods of extracting it. It is the seventh most common element and it has plenty of desirable characteristics, so abundant titanium metal is something to hope for. "Certain claims from America suggest this may be within reach." To put this in perspective, pilot plants in the United States and Canada currently produce just 60 tons a year, although the United States hopes to have 500 tons a year by the end of this year, while one American plant promises 3600t a year by the end of 1952 in a plant that reduces titanium chloride in molten magnesium in an inert gas atmosphere at 800 to 900 degrees Centigrade. The Americans propose to use their ample supply of helium for the job, while Britian would use argon, which is much more expensive than helium, which is why the DSIR is looking at hydrogen. 

Speaking of raw materials, the latest Commonwealth conference featured Britain trying to persuade the other Commonwealth countries to keep on buying British manufactures so that Britain could keep on buying their raw materials for sterling. I am not sure what's in it for countries that aren't Britain? Neither is The Economist, but at least it isn't short of bluster! The Economic Survey's latest forecast of a 4% increase in production during 1951 is on track, but there is, as yet, no considerable measure of expansion of defence production, and there is some fear of production interruptions in the winter, as coal output is only up 3% this year so far. This is perhaps related to the American Department of Commerce licensing coal exporting terminals at Baltimore and Charleston to supplement Hampton Roads, which is operating at capacity. The Economist is quite taken with the new industrial research company in Lancashire, Shirley Developments, which is looking into new technical advances in the textile industry.

"Oil in 1955" The forecast is that oilfields outside of the Soviet orbit will be producing 30 to 40% more than today, but this will not keep up with demand and American reliance on imports will continue to increase. American production will still be about half of the fre world's at 8 million barrels a day or so, compared with 6.5 million today and rest-of-the-world production of 4.5 million. Available oil in 1955 will be in the range of 15 million barrels, and 70 to 80% of the increase outside America will be in the Middle East. With American demand forecast at 10 million barrels a day by 1955, allowing the rest of the world anything like the same growth, points to an oil shortage. 

British retail sales have been "stagnant" since July. 

The Economist,   13 October 1951

"A Stand for Suez" The Economist explains what the Government must do. 

(Now that's how you restore order!)

"The Real Issues --I" Britain is undergoing inflation, which is driving the trade imbalance, which is bad, because the poor people keep buying things like food and housing. If only the poor could be made to pay more for these things, inflation would soon be under control. The wonderful thing about this is that it can be accomplished either by paying poor people lese or by letting the price of things they want to buy, go up. Or both! I could be both, if the politicians would just see reason! 

"Atomic Diplomacy" The Russians are testing atom bombs in way of saying that they still have atom bombs, only now more of them. They say that they are just testing the use of atom bombs for moving mountains and diverting rivers, which seems awfully old-fashioned compared with American speculation about the usefulness of atom bombs in "tactically" blowing up Russian spearheads, bridgeheads, whereas in the old days it was just bridges in general, which is not a credible threat any more because of the MiG-15, I interpolate, as the editor wants to keep things at a plain of high generality or abstraction, and talks about diminishing air superiority instead. The Economist reminds us that the threat of war in Europe is in the "imminent future" when there won't be enough atom bombs to go around. Boo! So, anyway, the Russians actually sound a bit conciliatory with this announcement, so it would be a good idea for the foreign secretaries of all the western countries to sit down and think about what they would do if Stalin actually offered to back down a bit before we blew Europe into a radioactive wasteland to stop the advancing Red Army. 

"Electoral Arithmetic" Labour is about to get trounced and lose between 116 and 168 seats to the Tories. 

"Grapes from Thistles" So far it looks like this will be the War Mongering Election instead of the Full Employment Election expected. Labour points out that while "of course the Tories do not war," war seems to be their only answer to Mossadegh and now Nahas Pasha. To which the Conservatives answer that since "rearmament is no longer an issue; it is a fact," the voters should vote for the government that believes in it. Pusillanimity just increases the risk of war! On the other hand, there is some suggestion that the voters are more worried about "houses, jobs, wages and prices."  A Note about "Politics in Church Schools" misses the roundup but is found later piled under a bunch of Jugoslavs. 

Notes of the Week

"Lessons of Abadan" The British appeal to the Security Council was a mistake, and now the worry is that Mossadegh will come off well on television. The Economist reminds us that the real issue is whether technicians and business executives will work for "this man." The Anglo-Iranian Oil Company must run Abadan because otherwise Coloureds will be telling Whites what to do. In short. We had better do something, too, because "Baghdad watches New York." Even though the more generous oil royalties settlement with Iraq ought to have been an example to Iran to show what could have been theirs. Then it is off to review the situation in Sudan and explain why it shows that Egypt is awful, and to the hustings to show how the Middle East will affect voting in Britain. (Labour's "nascent pacifism" is getting the worst of the argument with the "latent imperialism of the Tories.") This is the first of three notes covering the election, the burden of the first being a return to the question of when and if the domestic economy will emerge as an issue, the second being more about Liberal party vote splitting. At least it is more interestinng and original than the latest from West Germany on German unification! East Germany doesn't want a West German Army; West Germany doesn't want a national German election run on East German principles. The end. 

A Note about elections in Trieste leads into one about Marshal Tito complaining about anti-Jugoslav "propaganda" in Western media. The Salford strike is over and may have been caused by Communist agitation. The United Kingdom and Norway are fighting over fishing rights off northern Norway, which goes to show that the British aren't above leaning on White people, too. The Norwegians want to assert extended territorial rights, which, it is noted, are now of general interest because "installations for winning oil from below the seabed" are marching out ever further into the sea. That doesn't seem like anything worth worrying about in practically Arctic waters, so I guess the point is that a principle is at stake. 

"Assassination in Malaya" Henry Gurney, the High Commissioner of the Federation of Malaysia, has been killed in a Communist ambush. It is hoped that the shock of the event will bring a new resolve to end the emergency. 

Local Notes cover odd bits of always-be-a-Britain. Buckinghamshire, which is near London, is getting a conservation plan. A parliamentary committee looking into the baking industry is trying to resolve a number of problems relating to when things are baked. Bakeries traditionally bake bread in the early morning to have fresh bread starting with breakfast. Cakes are baked during the day in the cooling ovens. The night shift gets a premium to work at night, and doesn't want to shift over to day work,  but if this is balanced by a general wage increase and the day and night shifts become interchangeable, the night workers will have to learn how to bake cakes, which they can't do right now because they haven't been trained and there has been a decline in training in the industry due to the need for industrial production rates. So the solution would seem to be the Scottish-style apprenticeship that is spreading through the country. How odd. A problem with a solution! 

"Socialist Chic" Miss Margaret Herbison chanced to claim that British utility dresses are selling in Paris, which goes to show that Labour is doing something right. The Economist makes fun.

From The Economist of 1851 comes a description of Disraeli's speech at Aylesbury, repeated at Slough, against Protection. This would seem to be a question of "protection" for one "producing class," which is wrong. "Protection" for "all producing classes" would be good, but is impractical, so better to not have it at all. I have no idea.


"Mercator" writes to explain that Germany fought the world wars against the advancing tide of the "young Slav nations" and against Bolshevism, and will keep on fighting them just as soon as it is allowed to unify on its own terms. Well. That was compelling! "Pro Bono Publico" explains that party platforms aren't that important because the public usually votes against the government, not for the opposition.
Harry Pollitt of the Communist Party writes to say that the Communists aren't running 100 candidates in this election because they want the Tories to win, but because vote splitting is somehow not something that happens. I. S. Lloyd of Johannesburg writes to say that it is fine for poor countries to be poor and stay poor and no-one should try to do anything about it, because of Christian values or some such. Konstanty Reynert remembers how Polish soldiers and sailors were asked to go back to rebuild Poland in 1946, and points out that this shows how Labour is bad.



Freya Stark's Beyond Euphrates: Autobiography 1928--1951  is a fun travel book based on her letters. Folke Bernadotte's To Jerusalem is his posthumous book about, of course, Palestine. Hortense Powdermaker (which is a real  name) has Hollywood: The Dream Factory, which reveals that Hollywood is --are you sitting down?-- a terrible place, but she is an anthropologist who proves this this scientifically, complete with gossip reported from "Mr. Big Shot" and "Miss Manifest Destiny." L. F. Gibbins' The Growth of a Central Bank: The Developoment of the Commonwealth Bank of Australia, 1924--1945 is a terrible book about that evil place that men call Australia. What? I get tired of writing out "very worthy"! A. Bergson's Soviet National Income and Product in 1937 uses the notorious 193 Census to show that the Soviet Union has its problems, notably the large share of agriculture in its national product and the role of compulsory saving in its development. John Bowle's Hobbes and His Critics: A Study in Seventeenth Century Constitutionalism is actually quite interesting to me, as Thomas Hobbes is a pretty significant thinker, but I am sure you are already saying to yourself, "very worthy, indeed." 

American Survey

"Doubts about Washington" It turns out that cross-examining Senator McCarthy about his accusations of Philip Jessup was not a good idea, because it doesn't matter what, or who Jessup might be. If McCarthy is against him, the Republican Party has to line up against him, and since there's no real limit to how far this will go, with even "liberal Republican" Harold Stassen having to join forces with McCarthy. Jessup is not going to be the new American ambassador to the United Nations, and America's allies are wondering how far they can trust Washington. Will it start World War III, or just cut economic aid, boycotting China, or trying to push Britain out of trade with China. The next Survey article is one of those explaining articles about the American meat packing industry that I don't need explained, and neither do you. America produces a lot of meat because it has a lot of grazing land, and because only about a tenth of the 3 to 3.5 billion bushels of corn grown every year, finds its way into direct human consumption. 

American Notes

"The Air Force Flips the Balance" If the Air Force gets more money, everyone gets more money, including the AEC, which will spend a billion a year on atom bombs, especially "small atomic weapons" which can be fired at enemy troos in the field. This will allow the US to do without all those planes and troops. So more money leads to less money. 

"Queue for Credit" The restrictions on bank credit expansion put in place last spring are being put to the test. The demand for loans is so great that the banks could not take up a Treasury loan, and apart from relaxing controls, there is nothing to do but restrict loans to "essential" areas, which, given the political clout of homeowners, will have to mean mortgages, which means that the restrictions won't restrict much at all, and the result will either be a rapid rise in interest rates or a relaxation of the restrictions and more inflation. The President is in hot water for making some reckless statements while arguing about government secrecy. Too many things are top secret, but the newspapers are far too lax in reporting secret things they have heard. There is no system for "declassifying" top secrets, and there should be, and there is no way of punishing, for example, Congressman who blurt out top secrets. It's a mess!

"Exploring the South" Senator Karl Mundt of South Dakota thinks that Republicans should explore the possibility of getting some votes below the Mason-Dixon Line, because plenty of voters down there want to "stop the encroachment of the all-inclusive centralised super-state" that is bringing Communism to America. All that remains is to give up on civil rights, he says. Unfortunately, liberal Republicans are against, and even States Right Democrats are not for.

"Rainmaking Comes to Stay" The current drought in the Pacific Northwest is bad for the region, but also bad for the country, as another article points out, since the drawing down of hydroelectric threatens the nation's aluminum supply. Fortunately, rain last week has eased the threat. It was natural rain, since, as you might have heard, it tends to rain on the Northwest in October. However, Irving Krick of the Water Resources Development Corporation was in town and talking about cloud-seeding and rainmaking, and he is said to have made 3" of rain over the Big Bend country and ruined the cherry harvest. His corporation now has 120 employees and has been credited with stopping a new dust bowl in the South-West, and, on the debit side, of causing the Kansas floods. He has forty contracts to seed clouds over 330 million acres, and is not the only one in the business, showing that rainmaking has come to stay. 

Unless, you know, it doesn't actually work. 

"Hope for the Seaway" Canada's "Get on with it or we'll do it ourselves" ultimatum seems to be working. When the House Committee on Public Works pigeon-holed the latest initiative, involving building joint American and Canadian powerhouses at Barnhart Island instead of just a Canadian one, Congressman John Blatnik of Minnesota just stepped in with a new proposal that is designed to slide by the Committee's objections.  That just means overcoming New York state and private power line owners' objections. How do we ever get anything done in this country?

Shorter Notes has the President appointing Averill Harriman to a new job on the ECA, which was already noticed earlier, Congress giving a billion dollars to the Export-Import Bank to meet demands for purchases of essential materials, a tax cut in South Dakota, the  move of the American centre of population 62 miles west but also south from Indiana to Illinois, and that Maryland has paid off the last of its Civil War debts. 

World Overseas

"Iron Curtain Harvest" The harvest is in Eastern Europe. It was a bumper crop, which shows that Communism is bad because peasants don't like collectivisation. 

"Suez and the Canal Zone" The Economist explains the Canal Zone, which consists of the band of installations the length of the Canal from the Mediterranean to the Red Sea, and also a large Training Area in the Suez desert. The 1936 Treaty allows Britain to have 10,000 personnel and 400 pilots in the Zone, but this has been "exceeded," which apparently is fine with the Egyptians. Now, The Economist doesn't give a number, but I hear elsewhere that this 10,400  limit has been "exceeded" to the tune of 80,000 British personnel, and the "proof" that Egyptians don't mind is a quote to the effect that Egyptians don't want British troops there in the first place, so the number of them is irrelevant. The Egyptians who want the British troops to leave are hysterical and wrong, we're told. This doesn't leave much room to discuss the broad Egyptian agreement that the British should leave, except to point out that they've been encouraged by the Iranian success, which goes to show that Britain shouldn't give an inch, etc, in spite of Egyptian terrorists committing terrorist outrages.  Speaking of outrages, peace treaty out of the way, Japan has gone right back to trading with mainland China because it needs at least 3.5 million tons of coal a  year and 100,000 tons of iron ore for its steel industry and it is far too expensive to get it from America. They are also hoping for an outlet for their textile industry. Meanwhile the Chinese are celebrating the second anniversary of the Communist state including boasts about how it is winning in Korea and will reckon with the Japanese for supporting the UN in Korea, which doesn't sound very nice!

"Stalin's Atom Story" Is that the Soviet Union is all for abolishing atomic weapons, but the Atlantic bloc is against it. The Economist reviews the history and manages to find that the current situation is all the Russians' fault by the simple expedient of not mentioning the McMahon Act at all.  

"The Plight of Italy's Heavy Industries" It's because of the Communists and the government, with specific emphasis on the railcar and locomotive works at Reggiane, which have become a national scandal, right up there with the two-month long cabinet crisis in Israel which has ended with Ben Gurion's socialists forming another coalition with the religious bloc, which is less scandalous the second time around because what do you expect? 

Business World

"Markets for Motors" Canada has returned several thousand British cars as unsaleable, bad news after the happy days between 1946 and 1950 and reflecting falling retail sales and more importantly drastic Canadian restrictions on hire-purchase. Britain is still exporting more cars than any other country, but this is a sign of how markets can turn. Britain dominates the market for smaller cars and sells mainly to countries that have no chance of buying an American car and no money for a Continental one. Lower cost cars from Renault, Volkswagen and Fiat are starting to threaten them, and there is the implicit notion that the Americans would sweep all before them if they could just sell into soft currency markets. Therefore the solution is for Britain to produce American style cars, with the gigantic 115 inch wheelbase, weight of up to  30cwt, room for six passengers, and "as much transportation" as the average American family can use. Americans want big cars with automatic transmission, and smaller cars can't compete with second-hand. The rest of the world wants light weights, while Britain specialises in middle-weights. On the one hand, there is no reason that British exports cannot rise above their current £300 million. On the other hand, remember all those calls for standardisation and rationalisation just after the war? Maybe they'll be back soon due to the competing claims of defence!

"Economics of Electricity" A recent BEA ad says that, if electrical generating capacity continues to expand as planned, there will be an end to power cuts by 1956. The official report just says that they will be "rare" by then, and for the next three winters. However, unless the annual programme is increased, the report goes on, there will not be "full supplies" for many  years to come. This goes back to the Government policy of limiting capital expenditures for disinflationary purposes, restricting new plant to 1.5 million kW a year, rather than the 1.8 million kW that the BEA is asking for. That said, the amount actually installed this year will be only one million kW. The Government limits will only restrict BEA below its aspirational target in 1954. We are talking about it now because equipment has to be ordered in advance. Last year, the BEA overspent its investment allocation by £19 million on a base of £102 million, and this year it will spend more than £133 million. Demand is up 12% this year, and turnover is up to £237 million, up 22%. At this point there is probably only the alternative of limiting demand, particularly for electric space heating, since everyone knows that any Briton who wants heat in the winter is just asking for luxury!

Business Notes

The rails are working on plans for a difficult winter, while it is clear that winter coal stocks won't hit the 18 million ton target. Britain might have managed to come through the lat two winters, it has been "living on its fat," and disaster is at hand! Which would be easily remedied by some economies during the fat months of summer. 

EPU blah-blah plucky little Belgium. Cotton down, metals up, nickel and cobalt allocated, rayon output up, Australian meat more expensive, New Zealand meat to follow. Meat rationing is probably over. 

"Control for Comets" You may remember from last year the discussion of how jetliners couldn't possibly comply with stacking limits, so that controls would have to let the jets come roaring right through. Landing trials at London Airport this week are establishing how that is going to work, and, incidentally, they are working out the details for high altitude weather reports, which the Comets will need. It is hard to get that information, and the airlines will probably have to pay for it.  

Silver markets are "unusually agitated" this week. You don't say! It seems they are "due in part to international transactions in silver based on the cheap sterling," with some Dutch operators finding a way of, effectively, converting dollar to sterling at $2.45 to the £ by buying silver in London and selling it in New York. Whatever can it mean? Further articles show that the sterling trade imbalance is mainly due to the rest of the sterling area's dollar deficit, and that will change as soon as the South Africans manage to wiggle out of their gold sale agreement.

Aviation Week, 8 October 1951

BY CABLE comes, breathless, "First Report on Operation CIRRUS"! Eight NATO air forces got together and practice stopping the Red tide together. General Norstad says everything went great!

News Digest reports that Paul Shields has resigned as chairman of the board of Curtiss-Wright, while Thompson Products of Cleveland has bought the Antenna Research Lab of Columbus. General Quesada has retired. Again? SAI Marchetti has gone into liquidation a month after Breda closed its aviation department. Early commercial flights in the Ambassador report overheating. 

Industry Observer reports that the sweptwing B-36 development is ready for roll out as soon as its J-57s are delivered. The new Air Force medium bomber competition is said to be rigged in favour of the Vickers Valiant, which might also be adapted for the Navy's new supercarrier. Foreign manufacturers are lined up to look at that cropduster that friend of the magazine Fred Weick has been working on, and which gets free coverage here, week in and week out. Convair's XC-99 keeps setting one informal record after another, Convair says. The latest, AU-1 version of the Corsair gets rid of that two-stage supercharger gizmo.

David A. Anderton reports (an insert box tells us that Anderton is a member of the magazine's engineering department and that he went "directly" from New York to Farnborough to take in the display) that "Weak Production Handcuffs British Air"  SBAC is a great show, but the picture of British aviation "isn't pretty," because service types are obsolescent and all the bright, shiny new panes are two to four years away. The Beaverbrook press says so! For example, export versions of the de Havilland Vampire have a more powerful engine "for certain reasons." He admits that attendance at Farnborough was "amazing," but, and of course there is a "but," there needs to be "active" as well as "moral" support in the form of people lining up to work in the aircraft industry. It's because of the collective agreement, you see. The industry can't raid labour, housing is short in "defence areas," and "direction of labour is politically unwise, if not impossible, anyway." Raw materials and machine tools are also increasingly short. On the other hand, there are great new factories built under the shadow scheme that are only in partial use. On the other hand, while all the planes at Farnborough are prototypes, quantity production of the Valiant and Hawker P. 1067 has been ordered off the drawing board, so they soon won't be just prototypes.  

So, what prototypes did Anderton see? Apart from the Hawker P. 1067, "the unquestioned star of the show," he saw fighters, including the Supermarine 508, but not the Swift, as the prototype is out of service after a belly landing, the Hawker P. 1052, a swept-wing development of the Sea Hawk, the Sea Venom, the night fighter variant of the Meteor, but not the de Havilland DH 110, which just had its first flight last week, according to a Ministry announcement. Bombers included the first Valiant, the Short S. A. 4, which might be developed into a "terrific load carrier," three versions of the Canberra, and the Avro Shackleton. Engines on the static display included the Napier Nomad and

Armstrong Siddeley Snarler. Transports were a bit disappointing, with static displays of the Comet and the poor, sad Ambassador. The Viscount 700 flew over, as did the turboprop-powered Hermes V and Mamba Marathon. The Avro 707 put on a thrilling display of low speed manoeuvre to show off the research plan side, while the Navy had the Wyvern and Gannet out. Americans clearly have a lot to learn about building interceptors, and Britain has a technical lead in transports, but the Navy has little to learn except that turboprops are the thing,  with US Navy developments held back by "presumably, development troubles." 

"New Hope for Standard Lighting" Upcoming international conferences will try to come up with an international standard again this year, which would seem mainly to involve smacking the USAF, USN and airline pilots' heads together. In other news, the air force has issued a contract to Slick Airways, the House Armed Services Committee has approved air force base expansions, there is a regional air pact between Australia and the Netherlands, the Air Force is studying air cargo damage, and BCPA made money this year. Strikes continue, National Airlines' board has beaten back a stockholder revolt, and Australian National Airlines has cancelled its order for 6 Vickers Viscounts after the government refused to approve kerosene fuel. 

Aeronautical Engineering has Irving Stone, "Joint Group Tackles Engineer Shortage"

 High school students entering engineering are down 20% compared with the prewar years, which means that there probably won't be enough engineers through 1960. The one thing that stands in the way of pushing up engineering graduates is that many students and graduates believe that there are not enough engineering jobs in "normal" periods, which force them out into non-technical jobs and reduces their income. This makes engineering an "uneconomical" proposal. 

"'Beauty' Treatment for Stratojet's Skin" Boeing is having the B-47 in for aerodynamic cleaning up to bring its service performance closer to the claimed performance. Which is to say, it plans to do one as soon as 3M comes up with a "smoothing" treatment. Meanwhile, NACA is looking at "Porous Skin Cuts Stalling Speed," which is basically just a story about boundary layer control, but with "porous" metal skins (bronze/cloth/brass, subject to suction from a turbosupercharger compressor) rather than slots. The whole idea sounds beyond impractical, but NACA is looking into whether it might be made practical by close enough consideration of weather, dirt, insects, "etc." 

NACA Reports further explores the limits of the impractical with "A Survey of Methods of Determining Stability Parameters" by measuring them "dynamically," by the dynamic Harry Greenberg. It's not dynamic, though. It's maths. William Letko has looked into the effect of vertical tail area on the tendency of a model with a 45 degree wing to yaw all over the place. You need to fix this before I fly in your superswept airliner, Bill! Frank Diederich has laboured long and hard over "Charts and Tables" for calculating the "Downwash" of arbitrary wing forms. They're extensive! But not really arbirary. You're on your own with a 45 degree sweep, for example. A. Ethelda McArver is a girl, so she's been assigned the no-hope flying boat beat, and is looking at landing a model with "zero degree angle of dead rise." Naval architects will know what she's talking about! Yung-Huai Kuo is looking at two-dimensional flow over wing plans at transonic speeds. G. A. Bugaenko has wrangled gas flow over "an infinite cascade" by using some Russian guy's math. This is commie sciene, but we translated it for you. Eric Reissner used some free, Western math to do something similar. (Subsonic flow over oscillating airfoils, only.) S. S. Shu looked at the "curved stationary shock" of "two-dimensional flow." 

Less math, more test pilot daring do, no NACA as Northrop flies an F-89s Scorpion at high speed to test what happens after the canopy is blown. Pilot survived the first, pilot dummy in the second, higher speed test, was damaged, and a passenger in the third, highest speed test, was strapped in enough to come out okay, while the autopilot was fine. 

Production has "New Tools for Speed Welding" Remember that Olympics event, speed walking? It's not that silly. Ryan has just rearranged its electric welders and given them new power sources that ramp up faster. Convair has appointed a "master planner."

Equipment has George L. Christian checking in with how Chicago and Southern Air Lines handles maintenance. With a "Specialist for Each Plane Type"! How does that work with radios or tires? It doesn't, so he goes to those shops and hears what they've been doing, and the answer is this and that. 

New Aviation Products has the star, "plane air valve" of a "diversified line of valves" from Adel, a pressure fuel cap from Gabb Special Products, the "Livermore Analizer," which measures the torque from various shop tools, and a "subminiature selenium rectifier" from Electric Devices, Incorporated under the "Minisel" brand name. Flight Refuelling's new tube connector fittings "cut weight." 

What's New is reading William Glenn Cunningham's The Aircraft Industry: A Study in Industrial Location, the CAA's latest manual, on flight instruction, and a catalogue from Solar Aircraft. 

Robert H. Wood's Editorial explains why air power costs so much without talking about General Horace Shepard's pension or college tuition. Wood is very happy with Pan Am's "blunt warning" that it will start regular, low-cost North Atlantic coach service in April, whether other members of IATA are ready or not. Aviation Week's part-time sales manager is going full time at Business Week effective 1 October, and Aviation Week hopes to have a replacement soon. 

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